What is PLATO'S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY? We will write a custom Essay on Philosophy: Plato’s Republic versus Aristotle’s Politics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. Mr. Hart, if you don’t like “balderdash”, perhaps you could approve of “stultiloquence” or “blatherskite”. Politics, his work on political philosophy major result of these experiences, which sit the legitimacy of this work. Like Minos, they too wil… He claims that democracy is a danger due to excessive freedom. This justice was referred to everyone had the proper job in accordance to their … He concludes that democracy risks bringing dictators, tyrants, and demagogues to power. The central problem of political philosophy is how to deploy or limit public power so as to maintain the survival and enhance the quality of human life. Plato was born in Athens in c. 427 B.C.E. The Socrates seen in Plato’s dialogues converses with extraordinarily diverse interlocutors, including, inter alia, aristocrats, slaves, soldiers, rhetoricians, playwrights, sophists, pre-Socratic philosophers, and, in the Apology, a large assembly of jurors. Like most other ancient philosophers, Plato maintains a virtue-based eudaemonistic conception of ethics. Not only are they the most wise, but they are also virtuous and selfless. Philosopher Kings: are the most intelligent, rational, self-controlled, in love with wisdom, and well suited to make decisions for the community, and who promote the interests of the society as a whole. I. And like Plato, I believe that persons applying to hold a political office should have to pass some kind of exams to demonstrate knowledge of the relevant issues, in the same way, one must pass medical boards (physicians), or the bar (attorneys), or comprehensive examinations (PhD) in order to practice in those realms. He had given it a direction, a basis and a vision. These three men are walking the path that Minos (a legendary lawgiver of Crete) and his father followed every nine years to receive the guidance of Zeus. His most famous contribution is the theory of Forms known by pure reason, in which Plato presents a solution to the problem of universals known as Platonism (also ambiguously called either Platonic realism or Platonic idealism). PLATO (428-348 b.C.) In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. Unlike most philosophers, Aristotles political experience is undeniable as he was tutor of Alexander the Great, King of Macedonias. The second argument was that there would always be so many competing factions in a democracy that they would cancel out their worst elements and only the best policies would survive. In 387/388 he set up a school called Akademia in Athens. In Plato's Republic, Socrates is highly critical of democracy and proposes an aristocracy ruled by philosopher-kings. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. The Theory of the Ideas and plato’S ontology. [We might also consider some minimal qualifications for voting too, as so many are low information voters.]. By contrast, suppose your physician told you that she knows nothing of medicine, but the free market lets anyone practice so she thought she would give it a go. Most people look to Republic and Laws to begin to see Plato’s political thoughts. Coming from a distinguished family - on his father’s side descending from Codrus, one of the early kings of Athens, and on his mother’s side from Solon, the prominent reformer of the Athenian constitution - he was naturally destined to take an active role in political life… Given the obvious fact that a President Trump would be catastrophic for our republic, this system is far too dangerous. In metaphysics Plato envisioned a systematic, rational treatment of the forms and their interrelations, starting with the most fundamental among them (the Good, or the One); in ethics and moral psychology he developed the view that the good life requires not just a certain kind of knowledge (as Socrates had suggested) but also habituation to healthy emotional responses and therefore harmony between the … His relationship with Aristotle was also realized … • Plato may have traveled in Italy, Egypt to realize his aristocratic political dream. In Ms. Clinton we have a candidate who closely approximates that ideal — and the fact that she will almost surely win the election does provide some comfort regarding the wisdom of “the people”. Take a second to support Dr John Messerly on Patreon! Plato was a political philosopher first and foremost, in large part, because the birth of philosophy was contingent to morality—and morality to the political because the highest good of the Greek world was the polis. Before we start harumphing at you. Jefferson was a strong advocate for trusting the people, and he offered two key arguments. In addition, Plato thought that the ruling class should be morally excellent, and in The Republic, he lays out a plan to ensure, as far as humanly possible, that virtuous individuals compose the ruling class. In the Republic, the character of Socrates outlines an ideal city-state which he calls 'Kallipolis'. Plato’s political theory will be our best focal point. [1], In the Republic, Plato's Socrates raises a number of objections to democracy. Summary: Plato (ca. That is to say, happiness or well-being (eudaimonia) is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues (aretê : ‘excellence’) … To understand why we need intelligent and knowledgeable individuals occupying the most important positions in society, Plato invites us to consider the following: if we want good health care we consult physicians and nurses; if we desire legal advice we consult attorneys; if we want to construct buildings or bridges we consult engineers and architects; etc. [3], Karl Popper blamed Plato for the rise of totalitarianism in the 20th century, seeing Plato's philosopher kings, with their dreams of 'social engineering' and 'idealism', as leading directly to Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin (via Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx respectively). The traditional date of Plato's birth (428/427) is based on a dubious interpretation of Diogenes Laertius, who says, "When [Socrates] was gone, [Plato] joined Cratylus the Heracleitean and Hermogenes, who philoso… The more experienced graduates could also be candidates for appointed offices. In either case, you would not feel good about the situation. As for the argument that leaders don’t have to know anything, just choose good experts to advise them, I say balderdash. Plato finds the origin of the state in the various needs of people.Noboby is self-sufficient.So,to meet the various needs men created the political institution.To Plato,in the beginning there was only one class namely the producing class.Then emerged the guardian … Plato’s political philosophy is the first great theoretical examination of political life and is arguably the core of Plato’s philosophy generally: his most comprehensive and well-known work, the Republic, centers on the basic political question of justice. Plato thinks the same way about politics. Learn More . Because the faculty would be selected by Congress, it would not be tainted in the minds of right-wing voters as just another ivory tower of leftist fanatics. Summary of his thought School of Athens (detail: Plato) Rafael - 1509-1510 . Three elderly men are walking from Cnossos to the sacred cave and sanctuary of Zeus located on Mount Ida. It is an identical quality which makes man good and which makes him social. B.C. Surely all of this is insane! This raises the vexing issue of the value of democracy in an increasingly complex society. They manipulate and trick the owner into giving over the helm. He also argues that in a system in which everyone has a right to rule all sorts of selfish people who care nothing for the people but are only motivated by their own personal desires are able to attain power. As we say in the suburbs, “tut, tut, indeed.” That is, get a grip, sir. But surely the fact that physicians, nurses, attorneys, physicists, and philosophers endure long periods of training and must pass multiple examinations makes them more likely to be qualified to do their jobs than if they were chosen randomly or by a vote of the ignorant. Suppose your philosophy professor says he had never had a philosophy class, but that he got the job because he knows the dean. Really didn’t mean anything by using balderdash. By coincidence, CGP Grey just released a video on his YouTube channel summarizing the thesis of a modern day revisiting of “The Prince,” called “The Dictator’s Handbook,” by Alastair Smith. In other important positions, I want someone who understands health care, the economy, the environment, and technology, not someone who only pretends to understand them. Although I would prefer that the faculty consist of faculty from accredited universities, perhaps we could make it more palatable by using retired members of Congress for faculty. Jowet rightly pronounced that Plato as father of philosophy, politics and literary idealism. Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about Plato's early life and education. The sailors don't even know that there is such a thing as the craft of navigation. Plato’s political philosophy is much discussed and debated. He became a student of Socrates and was deeply moved by his views. Plato argued that we can’t have a good life without good government, and he also believed that we can’t have good governments without intellectually and morally excellent leaders. D. A. Uriarte. Plato is also considered the founder of Western political philosophy. Your email address will not be published. 2. [Plato] was a disgruntled old man, full of political rancor, fearing and hating the crowd and above all their demagogues; his prejudices had crystallized and he had become an old doctrinaire, unable to see anything but the reflections of his own personality and to hear anything but the echoes of … Doc, you are spot on, as usual, especially about women saving us, cause the data clearly suggests they will, thank Sagan. Plato's involvement to the western political thought is immense. 427-347 B.C.E.) Graduates of the college would then go through apprenticeships in low-level positions attached to various politicians. While Republic can be read, as a whole, as a work of formal political philosophy, Plato’s specific thoughts concerning the nature of the supposed ideal city (his political philosophy) come out in Books… This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. This setting is crucially linked to the theme of the Laws. We have all had the notion driven into our heads that democracy is the highest and best form of political structure. It just popped into my mind as a funny word. Plato was a great philosopher as well as a teacher whose most renowned student, Aristotle, holds differing views. Plato’s dialogues are not just great works of philosophy; they are also recognized as great literary works as well. They cannot. Democracy, in Plato’s view, is the worst form of government and would have a tendency toward self-dissolution. Vs Plato, Aristotle has nurtured his political power while coasting in attending as Plato and his political theories. Contrary to societal values at the time, Socrates suggests that sex should not be a factor in deciding who should rule, so women as well as men can rule. Even so, current developments in European parliamentary systems demonstrate that even parliamentary systems are vulnerable to popular frenzies. Plato was the first organized political theorist and a study of the western philosophy of tradition begins with his masterwork, the Republic. But I do know what Mr. Hart means. In Plato's Republic, Socrates is highly critical of democracy and proposes an aristocracy ruled by philosopher-kings. The dialogue is set on the Greek island of Crete in the 4th century B.C.E. Much of the conversation in the dialogues does not deal with abstract speculation but with ordinary, everyday matters. He also claims that democracies have leaders without proper skills or morals and that it is quite unlikely that the best equipped to rule will come to power. Plato's ideal rulers are philosopher-kings. Learn how your comment data is processed. Have you mounted some sort of high-horse? But I can imagine one scheme that might help. They could start at any level they choose: local, state, or federal. Plato’s arguments in favour of the Theory of the Ideas. “Should”, of course, assumes that “the people” aren’t as idiotic as many have shown themselves to be this year. Good Lord, man, what next? 988 words (4 pages) Essay. All the sailors try to convince the owner to give control of the ship over to them, and whoever convinces him becomes the navigator or captain. Most of the changes necessary to reform our republic are politically impossible. Guardians/Soldiers: Those who keep order in the society and protect it from invaders. The true captain represents a philosopher-king, who knows the forms of justice and goodness.[2]. One is frequently amazed at just how dramatic many of these dialogues are, considering their lofty topics. This identification is the first and fundamental principle of Plato’s political philosophy.” Sophists admitted the political value of justice, but they denied its human value, that is, it is a moral goodness. To combat corruption, Plato's Socrates suggests that the rulers would live simply and communally. Plato's political philosophy, my aim is not to give a précis of the dialogues that could be read in their stead, but rather to concentrate on a few of what seem to me to be the most fundamental and persisting issues. I have corresponded with a few professional philosophers who are always saying things like “I’m meant to reply but alas …” And I always thought that was a bit pompous. One of the greatest thinkers in the history of philosophy, Plato was born in Athens as the son of a noble family. Plato had also attended courses of philosophy; before meeting Socrates, he first became acquainted with Cratylus (a disciple of Heraclitus, a prominent pre-Socratic Greek philosopher) and the Heraclitean doctrines. And what not. IV. The children's biological parents will never be known to them, so that no Guardian will prefer his or her own offspring over the common good. Since individuals, dominated by their own desires and lusts, would vie for power and become embroiled in political conflict, democracy would tend toward entropy. The fatal flaw of the two-party system is illustrated by the current election: a dangerous candidate who gets a plurality of the votes in primaries can end up winning the nomination, and party loyalty then gives him a real shot at winning the election. Subscribe to ReasonandMeaning and receive notifications of new posts by email. Eventually they could become candidates for office, using their school transcripts and evaluations as evidence of their competence. THE MYTH OF THE CAVERN, COMPENDIUM OF PLATO’S PHILOSOPHY. You want those who practice to be qualified. Now if you were trying to determine whether you needed heart surgery you would consult a cardiologist, not take a vote or ask the cashier in the checkout lane. Liked it? ), auxiliaries (warriors), and guardians (rulers); a society is just when relations between these three classes are right. Now none of this guarantees that will we get good politicians, nor that society will flourish as a result because even after long periods of training there are incompetent and immoral politicians, physicians and philosophy professors. To identify moral individuals we might use Plato’s model of observing people for many years to assess their moral virtue, or we may prefer the one used for centuries in ancient China—the Imperial Exams. I want a physician to treat me, not someone who plays one on TV. How can an ignorant person even identify knowledgeable ones? This is a radical solution, but the best one I know of. Plato was a Greek philosopher known and recognized for having allowed such a considerable philosophical work. II. From his forties to his trip to Southern Italy, his work was largely influenced by his teacher. This page was last edited on 26 July 2020, at 09:14. You can view samples of our professional work here. Producers or Workers: The laborers who make the goods and services in the society. An ideal society consists of three main classes of peopleproducers (craftsmen, farmers, artisans, etc. A parliamentary system permits the weirdo candidates to have their parties without disturbing the mainstream. The THEORY OF The IDEAS And PLATO’S EPISTEMOLOGY. A Summary of Plato’s Political Theory and American Politics 2016 October 24, 2016 Plato, Politics - General Plato argued that we can’t have a good life without good government, and he also believed that we can’t have good governments without intellectually and morally excellent leaders. Each group must perform its appro… The ontological dualism. 1. [1], Plato, through the character of Socrates, gives an analogy related to democracy: he asks us to imagine a ship whose owner surpasses all those on the ship in height and strength, but is slightly deaf; his vision is similarly impaired and his knowledge of navigation is just as bad. Platos strategy in The Republic is to first explicate the primary notion of societal, or political, justice, and then to derive an analogous concept of individual justice.