This whole article deals with the concept of ‘declaratory decree’ and what are the essentials of filing declaratory suit, whether the court can exercise its discretion in the case of the declaratory decree and if yes, under what circumstances. Rockingham invited Benjamin Franklin to speak to Parliament about colonial policy and he portrayed the colonists as in opposition to internal taxes (which were derived from internal colonial transactions) such as the Stamp Act called for, but not external taxes (which were duties laid on imported commodities). In particular, the act could be seen as including or excluding the authority to tax (especially if one adhered to the notion that there was a difference between legislation and taxation). § 9-4-1 et seq. Representatives from a number of the Thirteen Colonies assembled as the Stamp Act Congress in response to the Stamp Act 1765, to call into question the right of a distant power to tax them without proper representation. Charles Townshend, the chancellor of the … Cause: The colonies presented a unified front and opposed British parliament for the Stamp Act. Members of Parliament knew they had to repeal the Stamp Act because it had brought the British economy to a standstill after the Americans boycotted British goods. The Declaratory Act was a measure issued by British Parliament asserting its authority to make laws binding the colonists in all cases whatsoever including the right to tax. 28 U.S.C. It was not until the revolutionary crisis was in full ferment in the 1770s that patriots such as John Hancock would invoke the act as a symbol of parliamentary tyranny. * The Townshend Act (1767-68)- A tax increase on lead, glass, tea, and paint. The British Parliament was then faced with colonies who refused to comply with their Act. Effect: Colonist become very upset because of restrictions Colonies begin to unify Proclamation of 1763 Colonist must stay East of the line Native Indians are Angry over loss of land The Sugar Act of 1764 Cause: The British wanted more money to help provide more security for the colonies. The Act was not repealed until 1964, by which time the handful of remaining British colonies in the West Indies were governed under constitutions explicitly granted under the authority of Parliament (in particular by the West Indies Act 1962). The Declaratory Act was enacted in 1766, right after Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, the same day. Rockingham was more favorable towards the colonies and furthermore he was antagonistic towards policies that Grenville had enacted. On the day it repealed the Stamp Act of 1765, Britain's Parliament asserted its authority to make laws binding the American colonies "in all cases whatsoever," using the same general language as in the Irish Declaratory Act of 1719. Another reason for repeal of the Stamp Act was the replacement of George Grenville, the Prime Minister who had enacted the Stamp Acts, by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham. This Declaratory Act was copied almost word for word from the Irish Declaratory Act, an Act which had placed Ireland in a position of bondage to the crown, implying that the same fate would come to The Thirteen Colonies. This was designed to avoid a repetition of the actions taken by the Province of New York, who had at one point refused to comply with the Quartering Act, and ensure that the Governor, not the colonists, had control of Boston. Cause and effect is a type of relationship between events whereby a cause creates an effect. l7 . They therefore took some comfort in the fact that Parliament had never exercised that authority to tax the Irish. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and instead issued the Declaratory Act, which maintained Britain's right to tax the colonists. Other colonials understandably saw the Declaratory Act of 1766 as a direct parallel to the Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act of 1719 (commonly referred to as the Irish Declaratory Act of 1720), which stated that Parliament had the full "authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient validity to bind the Kingdom and people of Ireland." Effect: Parliament sent a warning: that Parliament had the power to pass all laws that… It stated that the British Parliament’s taxing authority was the same in America as in Great Britain. The political theorist Edward Mims described the American reaction to the Declaratory Act: When in 1766 this modernised British Parliament, committed by now to the principle of parliamentary sovereignty unlimited and unlimitable, issued a declaration that a parliamentary majority could pass any law it saw fit, it was greeted with an out-cry of horror in the colonies. In the words of a contemporary observer, the intention of the Declaratory Act "was to stifle all differences by the establishment of an undeniable principle" that Parliament had the constitutional power to legislate for the colonies, in case the repeal of the Stamp Act should leave anyone with the mistaken notion that it had given that up.