Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.orgPennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources – Forestry , Bugwood.org Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Autumn olives are good eating for birds and deer.The deer eat them because the berries have lots of lycopene and the deer know it makes their vision better. Once established it can eliminate most other plant species. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. Height ranges from 1.5 to 6 m but 3-5 m is typical. Common Name: Autumn Olive Scientific Name: Eleagnus umbellata Identification: Autumn Olive is a deciduous shrub that may reach between 3 to 20 feet in height. It is easily recognized by the silvery, dotted underside of the leaves. USDA. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) has the distinction of being the most invasive plant at the conservation area, as ranked by the New York Invasive Species Clearinghouse Non-Native Plant Species Invasiveness Assessment.It is quite common in the old fields of the Federal Farm area, but far from being one of the most prevalent species. It is easily recognized by the silvery, dotted underside of the leaves. Autumn olive. Appearance Elaeagnus umbellata is a deciduous shrub from 3-20 ft. (0.9-6.1 m) in height with thorny branches. Autumn olive is considered invasive for a few reasons. That means that it is shading anything growing near it, shading out the nearby native plants. Abstract: The Autumn olive (elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive shrub that is distributed throughout the United States, especially in the Midwest. YouTube; Herndon Environmental Network. Autumn olive should be … A deciduous shrub with white flowers in spring and bright red berries in fall, autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) originally came from Asia and was widely planted in the U.S. for wildlife food and erosion control.It can grow up to 15 feet high. (2.5 cm) wide. It threatens native ecosystems and should not … Autumn berries, also known as the autumn olive, are the small red fruit of the autumn olive tree (Elaeagnus umbellata), which was imported from Asia to North America as an ornamental tree in the 1830s. Its fragrant spring flowers and bountiful harvest of red berries in the fall obscure the fact that this plant can be an invasive bully. Autumn olive closely resembles invasive Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) Distribution: Confirmed observations of Autumn olive submitted to the NYS Invasive Species Database. Habitat. Fordham, I.M, R.H. Zimmerman, B.L. Foliage Leaves are alternate, 2-3 in. The shrub has alternate, elliptical leaves with a silver underside. Autumn olive can be found through much of Ohio and is adapted to a variety of sites. It thrives in high light conditions where it can produce numerous fruits. Oleaster Family (Elaeagnaceae) Origin: East Asia Background Autumn olive was introduced into the United States in 1830 and widely planted as an ornamental, for wildlife habitat, as windbreaks and to restore deforested and degraded lands. Autumn olive is easily confused with a closely related species, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), which is also an invasive species. Origin. Going Native: Urban Landscaping for Wildlife with Native Plants. Autumn olive is a commonly seen large shrub that has such a pleasant name, it’s almost inviting. But after a short trip through their digestive systems, the berry was utilized, but the seed hit the ground to grow rapidly into an approximately 15-foot-tall bush. What. Download the free Outsmart Invasive Species App to your … It spreads rapidly in old fields and is also found in open woods, along forest edges, roadsides, sand dunes, and other disturbed areas. Autumn olive grows very quickly, reaching sexual maturity as early as three years of age, after which it bears fruit annually. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. SUBMIT ALL. Despite its “pros,” this shrub has proven to be very invasive. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. It pro-duces abundant fruits that are widely distributed by birds and mammals. 2020 Invasive Plant Factsheet: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Autumn Olive's high seed production, as well as its adverse affect on the nitrogen cycle, now threaten native plant communities in many national parks in Virginia. Though the berries themselves are small (approximately the size of a red currant), the trees on which they grow are a giant problem. It … Threats Autumn olive is a very troublesome invasive species in Virginia. Autumn olive is on the USDA terrestrial invasive plants list. 6 Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Biology and Life Cycle Autumn olive reproduces primarily by seed but can reproduce through root-crown sprouting and suckering. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive woody plant native to eastern Asia. It leafs out early in the spring and then doesn’t lose its leaves until late autumn. Appearance Elaeagnus umbellata is a deciduous shrub from 3-20 ft. (0.9-6.1 m) in height with thorny branches. Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.orgPennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources – Forestry , Bugwood.org Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org Suzan Campbell, MNFI. Description: Perennial, deciduous shrub, up to 10-15' tall and wide, usually very branched, with silvery and/or brown scales along twigs.Some plants bear 1"+ woody spines. The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. The related Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) is also invasive in Maryland. Native to China and Japan and was introduced into North America in 1830. Google. Autumn olive is easily confused with a closely related species, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), which is also an invasive species. 2003. Habitat: Autumn olive is moderately shade tolerant and occurs on a variety of soil types. (5-8 cm) long and 1 in. University of Maine. This extremely invasive shrub spreads by bird-dispersed seeds. It was introduced to the United States as an ornamental plant in the 1800s. Oleaster Family (Elaeagnaceae) Origin: East Asia Background Autumn olive was introduced into the United States in 1830 and widely planted as an ornamental, for wildlife habitat, as windbreaks and to restore deforested and degraded lands. Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. The leaves of autumn olive are wider than those of Russian olive, particularly relative to their length. Plants that need nitrogen poor soil are unable to survive in the vicinity of autumn olives. In more recent decades, autumn olive was planted to provide food and shelter for wildlife. Autumn olive shrubs (Elaeagnus umbellata) are considered an invasive species in North America but according to one autumn olive berry forager, these shrubs may also provide many North Americans with great nutrition and a profitable business opportunity. Alters nutrient cycling by adding nitrogen to the soil. It was introduced in the 1930s and promoted in the 1950s as a great food for wildlife. It … (2.5 cm) wide. It leafs out early in the spring and then doesn’t lose its leaves until late autumn. It was introduced to the United States as an ornamental plant in the 1800s. For more information, visit iMapInvasives. Wiley. Native to China and Japan and was introduced into North America in 1830. Invasive Plant Species Assessment Working Group. ; Non-native bush honeysuckles, Lonicera spp. It was commonly planted for wildlife food and cover until its invasive traits became apparent. Russian olive has elliptic to lanceolate leaves, its branches are usually thorny, and its fruit is yellow, dry and mealy. 2019 Status in Maine: Localized.Very Invasive. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive shrub. It is therefore advised to remove autumn olive … Indiana Department of Natural Resources. What. Suzan Campbell. It is difficult to control, as cut stumps and roots will resprout. In addition to its prolific fruiting, seed dispersal by birds, rapid growth and ability to thrive in poor soils, Autumn olive resprouts vigorously after cutting or burning. The nitrogen fixing roots change the surrounding soil chemistry. Cooperative Extension. Use the Midwest Invasive Species Information Network, http://www.misin.msu.edu/tools/apps/#home, Deciduous shrub that can grow to 20 feet high, Leaves are bright green on top and distinctively silver underneath, Spring-blooming cream or yellow flowers have a strong fragrance, Abundant red berries are lightly speckled and easily seen in the fall, Flowers arranged in spikes near the end of the stem are small, numerous, and creamy white in color, Flowers bloom in August and September in Michigan. Autumn-olive leaves Russian olive, Elaeagnus angustifolia (invasive) – has longer, narrower leaves that are silvery on top as well as on the underside. In Indiana, as in the rest of the country, The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted — in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive woody plant native to eastern Asia. In more recent decades, autumn olive was planted to provide food and shelter for wildlife. At maturity, autumn olive is smaller than Russian olive and is more frequently multi-stemmed and shrubby. Autumn olive Elaeagnus umbellata Autumn olive is native to Asia and was introduced into the US in the 1830s. Autumn olive is a fast growing shrub that can often reach up to 20 feet tall. Man-made … Or, to display all related content view all resources for Autumn Olive. RESTRICTED IN MICHIGAN, Use the Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN) online reporting tool, - Or - download the MISIN smartphone app and report from your phone - http://www.misin.msu.edu/tools/apps/#home, Nancy Loewenstein Auburn University Bugwood.org, Chris Evans Illinois Wildlife Action Plan Bugwood.org. It may reduce the water, nutrients and sunlight available for desirable plant species, and may depreciate the productive area of a pasture considerably. Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN) Educational Module and Assessment. Native insects, for example, cannot eat the autumn olive’s leaves or fruit. Autumn olive is one of the most common invasive brush species in the state. You might even pick a berry that otherwise would have grown into yet another invasive shrub, so consider eating autumn olives a delicious act of conservation. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is a deciduous shrub native to Asia that has spread as an invasive species throughout the United States. Autumn olive is a nitrogen-fixing plant that changes soil chemistry and disrupts native plant communities. Autumn olive at Bernard W. Baker Sanctuary (2014), pre-restoration and removal of autumn olive stands to improve grassland habitat. Autumn olive is a nitrogen-fixing plant that changes soil chemistry and disrupts native plant communities. Black, B.M. Autumn olive, Elaeagnus, Oleaster, Japanese silverberry, Introduced as an ornamental; cultivated for wildlife habitat and erosion control (. Autumn Olives grow on a shrub called Elaeagnus umbellata that is considered an invasive plant in North America. Like many non-native shrubs, it leafs out Autumn olive can shade out desirable native plants and fixes nitrogen in the soil, which can degrade native plant communities that thrive on low-nutrient soils. (2.5 cm) wide. Invasive, Exotic Plants of the Southeast Autumn Olive. Autumn olive is considered invasive for a few reasons. During August to November, red berries mature. The autumn olive is a perfect example of an invasive species that appears to create a vibrant habitat for birds and other wildlife, but is actually quite hostile for these native species. Flowers: Tube- or bell-shaped, fragrant, and borne in leaf axils. They grow rapidly and re-sprout quickly after cutting or … Invasive species can alter the chemistry of the soil and prevent native species from growing where they are needed. Maps can be downloaded and shared. Introduced in 1830 as an ornamental plant that could provide habitat and food to wildlife, Autumn olive was widely planted by the Soil Conservation Service as erosion control near roads and on ridges. Provides state, county, point and GIS data. (5-8 cm) long and 1 in. Appearance Elaeagnus umbellata is a deciduous shrub from 3-20 ft. (0.9-6.1 m) in height with thorny branches. It poses a particular threat to prairies, savannas and open woods. Autumn olive is a nitrogen-fixing species and can therefore colonize very low-nutrient soils. (5-8 cm) long and 1 in. Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Autumn olive is a particularly invasive species and is listed as a category 1 weed by the U.S. Forest Service for the Southern Region. Smaller populations exist in Washington and Oregon. Autumn olive. As mentioned above Autumn olive thrives under a wide variety of environmental conditions, and a single plant can produce up to 80 pounds of viable seeds dispersed by wildlife annually. It often forms dense thickets that shade out native species and increases the nitrogen content of … Autumn olive has been planted extensively for wildlife habitat, strip mine re-vegetation, and erosion control, and also has been marketed widely as an ornamental. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. I have watched it grow in patches of abandoned farmland for over 20 years now. This article displays images to assist with identification and provides recommendations for control, including a management calendar and treatment and timing table. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. It is a hardy, aggressive invasive species able to readily colonize barren land, becoming a troublesome plant in the central and northeastern United States and Europe. Michigan Department of Natural Resource; Michigan State University Extension. Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Introduced to the U.S. from Asia, autumn olive is a fast-growing woody shrub or tree that can attain 20 feet in height. Origin. Autumn olive is on the USDA terrestrial invasive plants list. It creates heavy shade which suppresses plants that require direct sunlight. Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive shrub in central and eastern United States. Foliage Leaves are alternate, 2-3 in. Autumn Olive. Autumn olive can be found all over the state, since it was planted widely with the best of intentions. The plants I saw today were along a stream in both sun and shade. Autumn Olive Invasive Species Alert - Printable PDF. That means that it is shading anything growing near it, shading out the nearby native plants. Invasive Species - (Elaeagnus umbellata) Restricted in Michigan Autumn olive is a deciduos shrub that can grow to 20 feet high. As summer peaks and wanes into … It can form a dense shrub layer which displaces native species and closes open areas. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Habitat: Autumn olive is commonly found along right-of-ways and on disturbed sites. National Invasive Species Information Center, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System (EDDMapS) - Autumn Olive, YouTube - How To Identify and Remove Autumn Olive, Fact Sheet: Autumn Olive (Jan 2014) (PDF | 740 KB), Invasive Plants of Ohio: Fact Sheet 7 - Autumn-Olive and Russian-Olive (PDF | 213 KB), Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - Autumn Olive, Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States - Autumn Olive, Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) -, Invasive Species Best Control Practices - Autumn Olive (2012) (PDF | 386 KB), Invasive Plant Species Fact Sheet: Autumn Olive (2006) (PDF | 659 KB), Invasive Plants in Pennsylvania: Russian Olive and Autumn Olive (PDF | 223 KB), Invasive Plant Fact Sheet - Autumn Olive and Russian Olive (Nov 2011) (PDF | 164 KB), Controlling Non-Native Invasive Plants in Ohio's Forests: Autumn Olive (, Invasive Plants and Insects: Autumn Olive, Invasive, Exotic Plants of the Southeast - Autumn Olive, Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin: Autumn Olive / Russian Olive, Autumn olive: a potential alternative crop. Autumn olive invades open and forested natural areas, as well as roadsides and agricultural fields. The section below contains highly relevant resources for this species, organized by source. Autumn olive is well established across the Mid-Atlantic due to its extensive intentional planting to provide wildlife food and revegetate mine spoils in the mid-1900s. Autumn olive was used for ornamental gardens, windbreaks, wildlife cover, and restoration of soils degraded by deforestation and mining. Autumn olive fruit, which are red when ripe, are high in antioxidants and vitamin C, the seeds are often spread by birds and mammals causing this shrub to spread like crazy. Best Control Practice Guide for Autumn Olive This document provides in-depth information about Autumn Olive in the State of Michigan including identification, distribution, management, and control options. Habitat. Cooperative Extension. Autumn olive should be reported. Elaeagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive fruit (Photo By: VoDeTan2 / Wikimedia Commons) Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive shrub in central and eastern United States.It was introduced in the 1930s and promoted in the 1950s as a great food for wildlife. Ecology: Autumn Olive is shade tolerant but prefers dry sites. North Carolina State University. U.S. Distribution: Autumn olive is widespread throughout Michigan and the Eastern United States. Autumn Olive Elaeagnus umbellata Invasive Plants are a Threat to: • Forests and wetlands • Native plants • Perennial gardens • Wildlife • Lakes and rivers • Human Health • Farmland Origin: Autumn olive is native to China, Korea and Japan. Controlling Non-Native Invasive Plants in Ohio's Forests: Autumn Olive (Eleagnus umbellata) and Russian Olive (Eleagnus angustifolia) (Feb 2012) Ohio State University. Stems, buds, and leaves have a dense covering of silvery to rusty scales. Russian olive has elliptic to lanceolate leaves, its branches are usually thorny, and its fruit is yellow, dry and mealy. The USDA categorizes Autumn olive as a problematic invasive plant species. Autumn-olive is listed among the top 10 exotic pest plants in Georgia , and among "highly invasive species" (species that may disrupt ecosystem processes and cause major alterations in plant community composition and structure and that establish readily in natural systems and spread rapidly) by the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation . Bloom in late spring. The Pennsylvania Flora Project of Morris Arboretum. (invasive) – leaves are arranged opposite each other along the twigs and they do not have silvery scales on leaves or twigs. The Autumn olive (elaeagnus umbellata) is an invasive shrub that is distributed throughout the United States, especially in the Midwest. Autumn olive is a commonly seen large shrub that has such a pleasant name, it’s almost inviting. The event hosted by the Mason-Lake Conservation District and North Country Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area (NCCISMA) included an educational presentation at the Pere Marquette Township Hall and a demonstration of control techniques, herbicide mixing, use, clean-up and safety at the edge of … (Elaeagnus umbellata)
It has simple, alternate oval leaves with silvery undersides (but not as silvery as Russian olive). Learn to identify the invasive shrub Autumn Olive in this fast paced video field guide. While this shrub does produce huge amounts of berries eaten by birds and mammals and can thrive on reclaimed mine sites, where pH extremes and high levels of toxic heavy metals are common, these positives do not outweigh the negatives associated with this shrub’s ability to invade and take over natural areas. This plant will often outcompete natives. Autumn olive flowers are creamy-white to … Look-alikes: Autumn olive looks similar to the closely related and also invasive Russian olive (E. angustifolia). It produces abundant fruits that are consumed and spread by birds and small mammals. Local Concern: Historically planted for wildlife food and habitat, autumn olive has been found to be highly aggressive, with seeds widely dispersed by birds and mammals. Autumn olive leaves are dark green on top and silver-gray on the underside, lance-shaped or elliptic, with entire, wavy margins. Autumn olive branch with flowers Similar native species: Could be confused with shrubby willows, but those lack silvery and brown scales on twigs and leaves, and have very different flowers and fruit. Five to 10 tubular, silver or yellow flowers appear between February and June. Autumn olive grows well in disturbed areas, open fields, forest margins, roadsides, and clearings.