Regions of Argentina Of Argentina's more than 278 million hectares of land, nearly 17.5 million hectares are established as protected, which is about 6.3% of the country's landmass. The climate in central-western Argentina (CWA), be-tween 288 and 368Sandbetween658 and 708W (Fig. Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest: Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay: Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W: Comparative Area: slightly less than three-tenths the size of … In the extreme west on the Andean border, small stands of araucaria survive, and clumps of wiry grasses are also present. Argentina has been producing wine since the mid 16th century. According to the Minister of the Interior, the north consists of the following provinces: Catamarca, Chaco. Precipitation is moderate to light throughout most of the country, with the driest areas in the far northwest and in the southern part of Patagonia. [53] In general, the climate can be divided into two main types: a cold arid or semi-arid climate at the higher altitudes, and warmer subtropical climate in the eastern parts of the region. With its continental climate favoring grape growing, the Mendoza region is responsible for producing over 80% of total wine production in Argentina. Heavy immigration, particularly from Spain and Italy, has produced in Argentina a people who are almost all of European ancestry. The South American landmass narrows so markedly toward its southern tip that weather patterns are moderated by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and average monthly temperatures remain above freezing in the winter. The Valdés Peninsula, located on the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, is known for its wildlife. [125][130] The Atlantic Ocean moderates the climate of coastal areas resulting in a lower annual and daily range of temperatures. [121] In the rare cases when cold fronts move northwards from the south (Antarctica), the cold air masses are not moderated by the surrounding oceans, resulting in very cold temperatures throughout the region. [9] In most of Patagonia, precipitation is concentrated in the winter months with the exception of northeastern and southern areas of the region which have a more even distribution of precipitation throughout the year. [65]:10 In the Calchaquí Valleys in Salta Province, the climate is temperate and arid with large thermal amplitudes, long summers, and a long frost free period which varies by altitude. [121] The high precipitation in the Andes in this region supports glaciers and permanent snowfields. The tree heights diminish above 7,000 feet (2,100 metres), and the growth becomes more like that of a cloud forest, with myrtles and laurels predominating. [57] Precipitation is highly seasonal and mostly concentrated in the summer months. [50] Although Santiago del Estero Province is part of northwest Argentina, much of the province lies in the Chaco region. Other major foreign influences have come from Spanish and Polish immigrants. Jump to main content [Access key C] Jump to primary navigation [Access key N] Skip navigation [Access key S] [20][25] Summer rains are intense, and torrential rain is common, occasionally causing floods and soil erosion. The most notable wine regions of Argentina are Mendoza, where nearly all the major wineries are concentrated. Each region is divided into Provinces. [20] With mean summer temperatures reaching 28 °C (82 °F), the region has the hottest summers in the country. [54]:18[55] These cold fronts are responsible for producing precipitation during summer. Written by Gloria Ogunbor. The geography of Argentina describes the geographic features of Argentina, a country located in Southern South America. Palm savanna in the eastern Chaco Central, near Formosa, northeastern Argentina. [103] Generally, frost arrives in early April in the southernmost areas, and in late May in the north and ends by mid-September – although the dates of the first and last frosts can vary from year to year. First region-wide study on how Latin America & Caribbean banks are incorporating climate change into their risk management. [3][4] Argentina possesses a wide variety of climatic regions ranging from subtropical in the north to subantarctic in the far south. Many regions have different, often contrasting, microclimates. [35] As well, most of Santiago del Estero Province lies within the region. This is caused by a longitudinal rain shadow zone (created when air masses lose their moisture while passing over high mountains) on the eastern side of the Andes. In much of Patagonia precipitation is concentrated in winter with snowfall occurring occasionally, particularly in the mountainous west and south; precipitation is more evenly distributed in the east and south. [4][12], It has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to the Köppen climate classification). [129]:17 A characteristic of the temperature pattern is the NW–SE distribution of isotherms due to the presence of the Andes. From Patagonia’s dramatic ice fields to Iguazù’s thunderous waterfalls and the shimmering blue lagoons of the Litoral, Argentina’s landscapes astound, while Buenos Aires is the continent’s most cosmopolitan and appealing city, packed with superb museums, restaurants, markets and music. Substantial numbers also came from France, Poland, Russia, Germany, and Great Britain. [65]:17 Absolute maximum temperatures in the Puna region can reach up to 30 °C (86 °F) while absolute minimum temperatures can fall below −20 °C (−4 °F). [59] These valleys lie in a transitional area between the sub–humid climate in the west where the first slopes of Andes occur and the semi–arid climates to the east in the Chaco region. [21][53][54]:20[56] The Chaco Low attracts air masses from the South Pacific High, creating a dry and cold wind, particularly during winter. According to the prevailing climate, the country is divided into mild, sub-tropical and arid regions. Patagonia, semiarid scrub plateau that covers nearly all of the southern portion of mainland Argentina. [72] Temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during the summer, particularly in the central valley of Catamarca (Valle Central de Catamarca) and the valley of La Rioja Capital which lie at lower altitudes. Another Pampas Indian tribe was the Querandí, who inhabited the region of Buenos Aires. Tropical air masses only occasionally invade the provinces of Formosa and Misiones in the extreme north. [52][54]:33[55][63] Precipitation in the Puna region averages less than 200 mm (8 in) a year while potential evapotranspiration ranges from 500 to 600 mm (20 to 24 in) a year, owing to the high insolation, strong winds, and low humidity that exacerbates the dry conditions. Main tourist regions The climate of Argentina is such that it is rather difficultto allocate the most favorable time of the year for visiting this place for recreational or excursion purposes. According to the prevailing climate, the country is divided into mild, sub-tropical and arid regions. [120]:72 The snow line ranges from an altitude of 2,500 m (8,202 ft) in the north to 1,800 m (5,906 ft) above sea level in the south. [123][121] South of 52oS, the Andes are lower in elevation, reducing the rain shadow effect in Tierra del Fuego Province, allowing forests to thrive on the Atlantic coast. [54]:18 For example, in Tucumán Province, cold fronts are responsible for 70% of the rainfall in that province. [25][37] Under the Köppen climate classification, western parts have a semi-arid climate (Bs)[20] while the east has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa). Precipitation decreases from east to west in the Chaco region because eastern areas are more influenced by moist air from the Atlantic Ocean than the west, resulting in the vegetation transitioning from forests and marshes to shrubs. [15] Argentina also claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (Spanish: Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur). [23]:38 Most of the rainfall during summer and fall is caused by convective thunderstorms. Nothing remains outside the possibilities offered by the types of climate in Argentina. [119] Thunderstorms are infrequent in the region, occurring an average of 5 days per year, only during summer. [9] Mean evapotranspiration ranges from 550 to 750 mm (22 to 30 in), which decreases from northeast to southwest. [20][25] Eastern areas receive more precipitation than western areas since they are more influenced by moist air from the Atlantic Ocean. FIGURE 1 | Argentina: regions, major cities, and rivers. [98] Córdoba Province has higher temperatures than the rest of the region while the few higher altitude areas have colder weather. [121] Winters have a more uniform temperature distribution. Patagonia, semiarid scrub plateau that covers nearly all of the southern portion of mainland Argentina. We may not necessarily be to a country before we discover what stuff such country is made of. [41] Summers feature more stable weather than winter since the South Atlantic and South Pacific highs are at their southernmost positions, making the entrance of cold fronts more difficult. [9] However, despite the diversity of biomes, about two-thirds of Argentina is arid or semi-arid. The coniferous and broad-leaved forests of the Patagonian Andes spread into Chile. [103] Precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year in the easternmost parts, while in the western parts most of the precipitation is concentrated during the summer months and winters are drier. Salta / Argentinien", "Estadisticas Meteorologicas: Periodo 1930–2013", "Valores Estadisticos del trimester (Diciembre–Febrero)", "Periglacial phenomena in the high mountains of northwestern Argentina", "Causas de Las Sequías de la Región del NOA (Argentina)", "Base de Datos Mensuales de Precipitaciones del Noroeste Argentino", "Climate change and mass movements in the NW Argentine Andes", "El Noroeste Argentino y el Umbral al Chaco", "Regiones Agroeconómicas del Noroeste Argentino", "Olive Growing in the arid valleys of Northwest Argentina (provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja and San Juan)", "The Vegetation of Northwestern Argentina (NOA)", "Aprovechamiento de Los Recursos Hídricos y Tecnologia de Riego en el Altiplano Argentino", "Tectonics and Climate of the Southern Central Andes", "Diagnostico del Manejo del Agua en Cuencas Tabacaleras del Valle de Lerma, Salta, Argentina", "South American Viticulture, Wine Production, and Climate Change", "Cambios temporales del clima en la subregión del Chaco Árido", "Provincia de Salta—Clima y Meteorologia", "Datos Meteorológicos Registrados en las Distintas Estación de la Provincia de Jujuy", "Klimatafel von Salta, Prov. [90] In contrast, cold waves are also common, owing to the Andes channeling cold air from the south, allowing cold fronts to come frequently during the winter months, causing cool to cold temperatures with temperatures that can fall below freezing. [66], Most of the region receives less than 200 mm (8 in) of precipitation per year, although some areas can receive less than 100 mm (4 in). a warmer climate in Argentina. Ten percent of the total were either enslaved Africans or their descendants who had been smuggled into the country through Buenos Aires, and there was a large element of mestizos (European and Indian mixture). [52][54]:34 Although easterly winds are rare in the Puna region, they bring 88%–96% of the area's precipitation. Streams harbour numerous fish species, including piranhas, and snakes and other reptiles abound. Small deer, introduced hares, and viscacha, a burrowing rodent, are common. Die Ausdehnung von Norden nach Süden beträgt 3694 km, die von Westen nach Osten an der breitesten Stelle 1423 km. [35] Eastern parts of Jujuy Province, Salta Province, and Tucumán Province, and northern parts of Córdoba Province and Santa Fe Province are part of the region. [121] In July, mean temperatures are above 0 °C (32 °F) in all of extra–Andean Patagonia,[119] ranging from 7 °C (45 °F) in the north to around 0 °C (32 °F) in Ushuaia. [12][50], The Patagonian climate is classified as arid to semi-arid and temperate to cool temperate. Argentina Weather, climate and geography Weather and climate Best time to visit. Located on a high-altitude plateau at the edge of the Andes Mountains, the province is responsible for roughly 70 percent of the country's annual wine production. [23]:37 Fall (March–May) is the rainiest season, with many places receiving over 350 mm (14 in). In climate, size, and topography, Argentina can be compared with the portion of the U.S. between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, although the North American region has colder winters. Daher kann auch nicht von einem einheitlichen, bestimmenden Klima in Argentinien gesprochen werden. In general, Argentina has four main climate types: warm, moderate, arid, and cold, all determined by the expanse across latitude, range in altitude, and relief features. Due to the importance of the winemaking sector in Mendoza, Argentina, the assessment of future scenarios for viticulture is of foremost relevance. [125][131] Towards the south, where land masses are narrow, the Pacific Ocean influences coastal areas in addition to the Atlantic Ocean, ensuring that the cold is neither prolonged nor intense. Windstorms (pamperos) with thunder, lightning, and hail are common. [20] Eastern areas are more strongly influenced by maritime climate than western areas, leading to a smaller thermal amplitude (difference between average high and average low temperatures). [52], The Andes are the principal factor that determines the precipitation/rainfall regime (seasonal distribution of rainfall). [11][12] Each climatic region has distinctive types of vegetation. Bordered by the Andes in the west and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, neighboring countries are Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, and Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast.. [103] Autumn arrives in March and brings periods of mild daytime temperatures and cool nights. [121] Because of this, these cold fronts do not result in the cold being intense since they are moderated as they pass over the surrounding oceans. [7][8] Consequently, there is a wide variety of biomes in the country, including subtropical rain forests, semi-arid and arid regions, temperate plains in the Pampas, and cold subantarctic in the south. [20][41], Mean annual precipitation ranges from 1,200 mm (47 in) in the eastern parts of Formosa Province to a low of 450 to 500 mm (18 to 20 in) in the west and southwest. [60][61], Valleys in the southern parts of the region are drier than valleys in the north due to the greater height of the Andes and the Sierras Pampeanas on the eastern slopes compared to the mountains in the north (ranging from 3,000 to 6,900 m (9,800 to 22,600 ft)), presenting a significant orographic barrier that blocks moist winds from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. [52] Consequently, vegetation differs within these different climate types. [121] In general, the passage of cold fronts is more common in the south than in the north, and occurs more in winter than in summer. Chaco is one of the warmest region in Argentina with an average daily high temperature of 28 degrees centigrade. Argentina's climate ranges from the great heat and extensive rains of the subtropical Chaco in the north, through to the pleasant climate of the central Pampas, and the sub-Antarctic cold of the Patagonian Sea in the south. Most of the arid region is subjected to strong winds that carry abrasive sand and dust. [119] Most precipitation comes from frontal systems,[119] particularly stationary fronts that bring humid air from the Atlantic Ocean. [119][121] Most of the moisture is dropped on the Chilean side, resulting in abundant precipitation, while in much of the Argentine side, the air warms adiabatically and becomes drier as it descends. Argentina Agricultural crop by climate areas Crops by climatic zone. Percent possible sunshine is defined as the percentage of theoretical sunshine a place receives where theoretical sunshine is defined as the highest amount of sunshine that a place possibly receives if there is no obstruction of sunlight from coming in. [55][58]:56 During fall, the jungles are covered by fog and complete cloud cover. Argentinien Klima. Because of Argentina's long length, it is divided into four main regions: the northern subtropical woodlands and swamps; the heavily wooded slopes of the Andes Mountains in the west; the far south, semiarid and cold Patagonian Plateau; and the temperate region surrounding Buenos Aires. Away from the coast, areas on the plateaus have large daily and annual temperature ranges. The climate is much cooler here, the wines tend to be more elegant, and firms such as Humberto Canale with its French-trained winemaker (far from uncommon in Argentina) and Noemia show just what can be achieved. Wildlife in the region includes now rare guanacos and rheas, as well as eagles and herons, the Patagonian cavy (mará) and other burrowing rodents, mountain cats and pumas, and various poisonous snakes. [119] During winter, both the South Pacific and South Atlantic highs move to the north, while the Subpolar Low strengthens, which, when combined with higher ocean temperatures than the surrounding land, results in higher precipitation during this time of the year. Some provinces span more than one of these regions. [119] The annual range of temperatures in Patagonia is lower than in areas in the Northern Hemisphere at the same latitude owing to the maritime influences of the sea. [120]:72[115] With the exception of certain areas such as Puerto Blest, no major towns receive more than 1,000 mm (39 in) of precipitation a year. Argentina Shaded Relief Map. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Each region contains the following departments. Average temperatures in summer in Argentina can differ quite dramatically depending upon whether you’re in the north or the south of this South American country. Planted grains, grasses, and trees have replaced much of the original flora. In the northernmost part of Argentina, the climate is subtropical, definitely hot in summer and pleasantly warm in winter. [23]:38–39 Winter (June–August) is the driest season, with a mean precipitation of 110 mm (4.3 in) throughout the region. Nearly unattractive for tourists are the cold months from May to September. [53] The eastern slopes of the mountains receive between 1,000 to 1,500 mm (39 to 59 in) of precipitation a year although some places receive up to 2,500 mm (98 in) of precipitation annually owing to orographic precipitation. The provinces in Argentina fall under the country's seven major geographical regions: Northwest, Mesopotamia, Gran Chaco, Sierras Pampeanas, Cuyo, Pampas, and Patagonia. Covering an area of 2,780,400 sq.km (1,073,500 sq mi), Argentina is the world's 8th largest country, the 2nd largest country in South America, and the 4th largest country in the Americas. Argentina’s fauna and flora vary widely from the country’s mountainous zones to its dry and humid plains and its subpolar regions. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Italian influence on Argentine culture became the most important of any immigrant group, and Italian is still widely spoken in Buenos Aires. Information for refugees and asylum-seekers in Argentina – help.unhcr.org Visit our country website - Argentina (Español) For legislation, case law and UNHCR policy relating to claims for international protection, visit Refworld. [39]:486 Precipitation and temperature are relatively homogeneous throughout the region. The variety of geographical regions in Argentina, are a determining factor of the different types of climates. [9][64] Due to the aridity of these mountains at high altitudes, the snowline can extend as far up as 6,000 m (20,000 ft) above sea level. [9][10] Argentina is best divided into six distinct regions reflecting the climatic conditions of the country as a whole. In this context, it is important to understand how temperature increase and precipitation changes will impact on grapes, because of changes in grapevine phenology and suitability wine-growing regions must be understood as an indicator of climate change. [53], The atmospheric circulation is controlled by the two semi–permanent South Atlantic and South Pacific highs,[54]:18 and the Chaco Low. [79][80] More than 85% of the annual rainfall occurs from October to March, which constitutes the warm season. [54]:20 Most of the precipitation comes from the east since the Andes block most moisture from the Pacific Ocean. The vast birdlife includes the flightless rheas, which are protected by a refuge in the area. The Araucanian Indians traveled over the mountains from Chile and raided Spanish settlements in the southern Pampas until the Conquest of the Desert in the 1870s. [57] to the west For example, in the Lerma Valley, which is surrounded by tall mountains, (only the northeastern part of the valley is surrounded by shorter mountains), precipitation ranges from 695 mm (27 in) in Salta to 1,395 mm (55 in) in San Lorenzo, just 11 km (6.8 mi) away. The principal Pampas vegetation is monte forest in the Dry Pampa and grassland in the Humid Pampa. [38][43] During the winter months, precipitation is sparse. The Indians and mestizos were pushed aside (mainly to the Andean provinces) or absorbed, and the blacks and mulattos disappeared, apparently also absorbed into the dominant population. Only in the 1990s, however, was business confidence in Argentina sufficient to justify the investment needed to drag its wineries into the twentieth century, and exports on a serious scale are a fraction of what they could be. Stretched over 3,700 kilometers (2,300 miles) from north to south, Argentina has a diverse range of climates, spanning from the almost tropical climate of the north, to the temperate climate of Buenos Aires and the Pampas, to the cold and windy climate of Patagonia, and finally to the subpolar climate of Tierra del Fuego. The regions are as follows: Andean Northwest, Chaco, Cuyo, Mesopotamia, Pampas, Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego. [12], This region's land is appropriate for agricultural and livestock activities. The vines were brought by Spanish settlers and the Argentina wine regions were soon established along the foots of the Andes. Southeast of the Andean region described above, xerophytic (drought-tolerant) scrub forests, called monte, and intervening grasslands spread across the Pampean Sierras. your own Pins on Pinterest Rio Negro is one of the coldest regions in Argentina with an average daily high temperature of only 20 degrees centigrade. [58]:56, The mean annual temperatures in the Quebrada de Humahuaca valley range from 12.0 to 14.1 °C (53.6 to 57.4 °F), depending on altitude. The zone begins in the Andean Northwest and extends along the eastern slopes of the Andes southward to, but not including, Tierra del Fuego. [123][124] For example, while mean annual precipitation is more 1,000 mm (39 in) at the Andean foothills, in less than 100 km (62 mi) to the east, precipitation decreases to 200 mm (8 in). Climate and Weather in Argentina in June. Regions of Argentina Of Argentina's more than 278 million hectares of land, nearly 17.5 million hectares are established as protected, which is about 6.3% of the country's landmass. [36], The region has a subtropical climate. The steppe areas have about twice the annual precipitation found in the arid zones, but evaporation exceeds precipitation in both zones, which therefore remain treeless. Elephant seals and Magellan penguins live along Argentina's southern coast. [62]:28[71] During winter, cold fronts from the south bringing cold Antarctic air can cause temperatures to fall between −8 to −14 °C (18 to 7 °F) with severe frosts. A beach holiday can also be enjoyed in the warmer season, but water temperatures will not reach much more than 19 °C. Due to its vast size and range of altitudes, Argentina possesses a wide variety of climatic regions, ranging from the hot subtropical region in the north to the cold subantarctic in the far south. Argentinien, nach Brasilien zweitgrößtes Land Südamerikas, hat eine enorme Nord-Süd-Ausdehnung von circa 3.700 Kilometern.Die Ost-West-Ausdehnung beträgt immerhin rund 1.400 Kilometer. [65]:16, The Cuyo region includes the provinces of Mendoza, San Juan, and San Luis. Buenos Aires and the Pampas have a temperate climate which means it' can be pretty cold in winter, but hot and humid in summer. [57] Without the Andes, the climate of northwest Argentina would have been arid and resembled that of northern Chile. So if you have plans to to travel or relocate to Argentina someday, here the … The climate in Argentina is very varied. In fact, it is home to mountainous, rugged topography, subtropical southern regions, moist grasslands, fertile plains, and dense forestry as well. [38] The interaction between the South Atlantic High and the Chaco Low generates a pressure gradient that brings moist air from the east and northeast to eastern coastal and central regions of Argentina. Lying between those is the Pampas region, featuring a mild and humid climate. Rosario is a city with a significant rainfall. [65]:10[69][70] In both the Quebrada de Humahuaca and Calchaquí valleys, winters are cold with frosts that can occur between March and September. Cold fronts that move northward from Patagonia, chiefly in July, bring occasional frosts and snow to the Pampas and Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is a habitat for jaguars, monkeys, deer, tapirs, peccaries, many snake varieties, and numerous birds, notably toucans and hummingbirds, as well as stingless bees. [121] There is a narrow transition zone running down from 39oS to 47oS that receives about 400 mm (16 in) of precipitation a year. [21] The Cuyo region is influenced by the subtropical, semi–permanent South Atlantic High to the east in the Atlantic, the semi-permanent South Pacific High to the west of the Andes, and the development of the Chaco Low and westerlies in the southern parts of the region. The rain shadow area has a central arid (desert) core rimmed by semiarid, or steppe, conditions. [124] The daily and annual range of temperatures on these plateaus is very high. [24] During heat waves, temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104 °F) in the summer months, while in the winter months, cold air masses from the south can push temperatures below freezing, causing frost. [14] However, all claims are suspended by the Antarctic Treaty System, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member. [66], Precipitation decreases from east to west,[104] and ranges from 1,200 mm (47 in) in the northeast, to under 500 mm (20 in) in the south and west.