In other types of research, it is important to follow a set pattern of rules that are used to reach the result of the research. Braun and Clarke (2006) recommended that researchers work systematically through the entire data set, giving full and equal attention to each data item, and identify interesting aspects in the data items that may form the basis of themes across the data set. In the course of this phase, inadequacies in the initial coding and themes will be revealed and may require various changes (King, 2004). The purpose of this article is to guide researchers using thematic analysis as a research method. A theme is not necessarily dependent on quantifiable measures but rather on whether it captures something important in relation to the overall research question (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The first step is to get to know our data. “Thematic analysis is a method of identifying, analysing and reporting patterns (themes) within data” (Braun & Clarke, 2006, p.79). During the fifth phase, researchers determine what aspect of the data each theme captures and identify what is of interest about them and why (Braun & Clarke, 2006). I have read and accept the terms and conditions. Furthermore, Koch (1994) argued that another researcher with the same data, perspective, and situation could arrive at the same or comparable, but not contradictory, conclusions. It’s important to get a thorough overview of … All themes and subthemes were vetted during team meetings. The notes created became auditable evidence to support the trustworthiness of the study. It allows the researcher to associate an analysis of the frequency of a theme with one of the whole content. The output of the analysis is a list of themes mentioned in text. Although there are many advantages to using thematic analysis, it is important to also acknowledge the disadvantages of this method. King warned researchers not be so strongly guided by the research question that themes which are not obviously of direct relevance are disregarded. Definition: Thematic analysisis a systematic method of breaking down and organizing rich data from qualitative research by tagging individual observations and quotations with appropriate codes, to facilitate the discovery of significant themes. Under such a state the best way to precept them is thematic analysis by which they can be understood easily. One way that a research study may demonstrate dependability is for its process to be audited (Koch, 1994), which will be discussed in further detail below. Because data collection and data analysis may happen concurrently, it is important to identify that the data analysis process may not be entirely distinguishable from the actual data (Thorne, 2000). Therefore, it is important that our research is recognized as familiar and understood as legitimate by researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and the public. These themes can be developed and understood by applying individual experiences and different approaches to qualitative research on the data collected for research goals. Thus we can say that thematic analysis is the best way to get a holistic approach of any text through research. We covered a wide variety of concepts in our interviews, so we initially utilized the conceptual framework to develop broad, higher order codes to help organize the data. reached thematic analysis. During our team meetings, the process of peer debriefing helped expose aspects of the research that might otherwise remain unspoken. Researchers need to distinguish if they are conducting an inductive or deductive thematic analysis as it will inform how themes are theorized (Braun & Clarke, 2006). When readers are able to examine the research process, they are better able to judge the dependability of the research (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). King (2004) also suggested that themes should not be considered final until all of the data have been read through and the coding scrutinized at least twice. Lincoln and Guba (1985) refined the concept of trustworthiness by introducing the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability to parallel the conventional quantitative assessment criteria of validity and reliability. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. The credibility of analysis was further enhanced by having two researchers analyze each data set. The approach to analyze data in qualitative research cannot be the same as in the quantitative research.Quantitative research focuses on numeric data and therefore the aim to achieve objectivity is far easier than in the qualitative research. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology. When participants were asked to define engagement, for example, many responded with laughter, amusement, or comments about the need for a definition or the trendiness the term. Personal experiences are given utmost significance in this sort of research in psychology. During coding, researchers identify important sections of text and attach labels to index them as they relate to a theme or issue in the data (King, 2004). As qualitative research becomes increasingly recognized and valued, it is imperative that it is conducted in a rigorous and methodical manner to yield meaningful and useful results. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Lorelli S. Nowell, Jill M. Norris, Deborah E. White, and Nancy J. Moules, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (. FundingThe author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by a Collaborative Research and Innovation Opportunities grant Alberta Innovates Health Solutions (grant number 20130152). This is another advantage that can be added to the analysis research. Interviewees provided both written and verbal consent to participate. Although thematic analysis as documented by Braun and Clarke (2006) will be presented here as a linear, six-phased method, it is actually an iterative and reflective process that develops over time and involves a constant moving back and forward between phases. Qualitative research is a valued paradigm of inquiry and the complexity that surrounds qualitative research requires rigorous and methodical methods to create useful results. Figure 4 illustrates a much-refined version of the themes and subthemes for the topic of defining engagement. When we do not apply a  analysis approach to analyze text only rigid results can be obtained eventually. This article contributes a purposeful approach to thematic analysis in order to systematize and increase the traceability and verification of the analysis. 3, Art. King (2004) advised that it is possible to go on modifying and refining definitions of themes forever, and one of the most difficult decisions to make is where to stop the process of development. It is possible to work in a team when the theory of thematic analysis is applied in the qualitative research method. A theme may be initially generated inductively from the raw data or generated deductively from theory and prior research (Boyatzis, 1998). This software enabled our research team to work efficiently with complex coding schemes and large amounts of text, facilitating both depth and sophistication of analysis. We also define thematic analysis and the trustworthiness criteria created by Lincoln and Guba (1985). In this article, we have attempted to provide guidance toward using thematic analysis as a research method. Sharing links are not available for this article. A rigorous thematic analysis can produce trustworthy and insightful findings (Braun & Clarke, 2006); however, there is no clear agreement about how researchers can rigorously apply the method. If the researcher can clearly and succinctly describe the scope and content of each theme, they may be ready to move onto the next phase; if not, further refinement may be required (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Related Publications. Consistency and cohesion can be promoted by applying and making explicit an epistemological position that can coherently underpin the study’s empirical claims (Holloway & Todres, 2003). All the themes, including discrepant data, were discussed in the final discussion section of the manuscripts. Regardless of the form of data collection, archiving all records of the raw data provides an audit trail and a benchmark against which later data analysis and interpretations can be tested for adequacy (Halpren, 1983; Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Theme based analysis is best for such types of other texts as well where a lot of time can be saved along with getting apt research output. As the qualitative research tradition continues to gain popularity, there is a need for greater disclosure and more sophisticated tools to facilitate researchers in conducting trustworthy qualitative research. Advantages of Thematic Analysis Through its theoretical freedom, thematic analysis provides a Selected themes will need to be refined into themes that are specific enough to be discrete and broad enough to capture a set of ideas contained in numerous text segments. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. o Makes connections through a common them. Theme units allow kindergartners to delve into one particular subject in all curricular areas. Highlighting the process of how to conduct a trustworthy thematic analysis may be a positive contribution to qualitative research as a methodology and help to the advance the elusive research method: thematic analysis. o Draw connections from the real world. Data will be reduced into a more manageable set of significant themes that succinctly summarize the text (Attride-Stirling, 2001). Firstly it brings out the rich data that the researcher has gathered in the data gathering phase. Themes are identified by bringing together components or fragments of ideas or experiences, which often are meaningless when viewed alone (Aronson, 1994). Our step-by-step approach provides a detailed description and pragmatic approach to conduct a thematic analysis. Thematic networks may be used to create a web-like network to organize codes and themes, making the procedures employed in going from text to interpretation explicit (Attride-Stirling, 2001). Disclaimer: The Reference papers provided by the Students Assignment Help serve as model and sample papers for students and are not to be submitted as it is. Manuscript content on this site is licensed under Creative Commons Licenses, Establishing Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research, Toward a Step-by-Step Approach for Conducting a Trustworthy Thematic Analysis, Phase 1: Familiarizing Yourself With Your Data,,, Norris, Hecker, Rabatach, Noseworthy, & White, 2017, Norris, White, Nowell, Mrklas, & Stelfox, 2017,,, Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research, The Role of Ethnography as Ethical and Policy-Relevant Public Scholarship, Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies. is a kind of qualitative research in which the theme-based research is carried out by the researcher. It is important to note that although computer programs may be helpful to organize and examine large amounts of data, none are capable of the intellectual and conceptualizing processes required to transform data, nor can they make any kind of judgment (King, 2004; Thorne, 2000). To ensure that the themes reflected the participant voice, we also returned to the raw data. Some themes may collapse into each other while other themes may need to be broken down into separate themes (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Part of telling the story was ordering the themes in a way that best reflected the data. Researchers can aim to build a valid argument for choosing the themes by referring back to the literature. o Focuses the Learner on the Mastery of Objectives/Overall Goals . We outline a practical process for conducting thematic analysis that aims to meet the trustworthiness criteria using exemplars from our study of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs) in Alberta, Canada. Students Assignment Help experts offer. Transferability refers to the generalizability of inquiry. Reflexive journaling serves the added function of establishing an audit trail, keeping track of emerging impressions of what the data mean and how they relate to each other (Cutcliffe & McKenna, 1999; Morse & Richards, 2002; Starks & Trinidad, 2007). According to Guba and Lincoln (1989), confirmability is established when credibility, transferability, and dependability are all achieved. research methods. It is important that, by the end of this phase, researchers can clearly define what the themes are and what they are not (Braun & Clarke, 2006). While observation notes and interview transcripts were easily coded in NVivo, the documents came in multiple forms (Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and PDF) and without a consistent structure. Investing sufficient time to develop the themes will increase the probability of developing credible finding (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Different methodologies and theories can be applied while doing a thematic analysis of a text and that is why a correct conclusion can be obtained from research. A solo researcher may consult outside experts to determine whether the themes are sufficiently clear and comprehensive to call a halt to modifications (King, 2004). Individual extracts of data were coded in as many different themes as they fit and as many times as deemed relevant. Volume 20, No. Trustworthiness is one way researchers can persuade themselves and readers that their research findings are worthy of attention (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). We used an Excel spreadsheet to log all raw data and to detail the team’s progress in collecting and converting raw data to text that could be subsequently analyzed in NVivo (version 11) (Figure 2). Ideally, as researchers engage in the analytic process, they will progress from description, where the data have simply been organized and summarized to show patterns, to interpretation, where researchers attempt to theorize the significance of the patterns and their broader meanings and implications, often in relation to literature (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Lost in knowledge translation: Time for a map? These comments did not specifically answer the question but were important data that illuminated the contextual nature of the question in the organization. These papers are intended to be used for reference and research purposes only. While thematic analysis is flexible, this flexibility can lead to inconsistency and a lack of coherence when developing themes derived from the research data (Holloway & Todres, 2003). This technique may be useful for researchers conducting a realist, deductive, thematic analysis. It allows the researcher to associate an analysis of the frequency of a theme with one of the whole content. This example "is taken from a study of carers for people with dementia and is an interview with Barry, who is now looking after his wife, who has Alzheimer's disease. Thematic analysis forms an inseparable part of the psychology discipline in which it is applied to carry out research on several topics. Although thematic analysis has been described (Aronson, 1994; Attride-Stirling, 2001; Crabtree & Miller, 1999; King, 2004), guides on conducting thematic analysis have primarily focused on conducting research with an applied focus (Guest, MacQueen, & Namey, 2011) or described inductive versus deductive coding (Fereday & Muir-Cochrane, 2006). Thematic analysis is often understood as a method or technique in contrast to most other qualitative analytic approaches - such as grounded theory, discourse analysis, narrative analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis - which can be described as methodologies or theoretically informed frame… More the number of people working towards the analysis of a text higher will be the aptness of the research output. Authors’ NoteThe data sets generated and analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to the sensitive and identifiable nature of our qualitative data but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. A consistent approach is needed to begin coding the data, and there are several approaches that can be used in a disciplined way. Thematic analysis becomes a part of psychology where you are guided with clarity on how to start a thematic analysis. In offering our own personal insights and practical examples, it is our hope that the process of conducting a rigorous and trustworthy thematic analysis has been illustrated in a way that helps those in the process of interpreting and representing textual data. Advantages of Thematic Analysis. Inductive analysis is a process of coding the data without trying to fit it into a preexisting coding frame or the researcher’s analytic preconceptions. We also presented themes, subthemes, and exemplar quotes in a table, which aided us in keeping the report within journal word limits. Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. View. Qualitative research, intended to generate knowledge grounded in human experience (Sandelowski, 2004), has established a distinctive place in research literature. In order for the discussion to be credible, the researcher should discuss all of the relevant results, including results that were unexpected or did not correspond to the main explanations of the phenomenon being studied (Côté & Turgeon, 2005).