El multidisciplinar Proyecto Templo Mayor, puesto en marcha aquel mismo año, se marcó el ambicioso propósito de reconstruir la cultura de la capital del Imperio azteca… Pero lo que más les admiró fue el recinto ceremonial del Templo Mayor. Templo Mayor, however, was built upon a steady patch of landfill and is sinking at a much slower rate. She is also the Editor in Chief for history-first.com, An Inside Look At V-J Day And The End Of World War 2, From The Joyous To The Ugly, What Stephen Hawking Thinks Threatens Humankind The Most, 27 Raw Images Of When Punk Ruled New York, Join The All That's Interesting Weekly Dispatch. In fact, the great temple was located in an area of Tenochtitlan that historians refer to as the ‘Sacred Precinct’. In February 1978, electrical workers uncovered a large stone sculpture, depicting the Aztec female lunar deity Coyolxauhqui. Unearthing the Aztec past, the destruction of the Templo Mayor. The ancient Templo Mayor stood at the heart of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan. He brought with him smallpox, which decimated the indigenous people. One Spanish chronicler noted that “all the wonders” of Tenochtitlan “were overthrown and lost, nothing left standing.”. As the center of religious life, Templo Mayor played an important role in human ritual sacrifices. Ciudad bulliciosa, atravesada por innumerables canales, produjo el asombró de los conquistadores, quienes la compararon con Venecia. The Templo Mayor was a twin temple, devoted to the Aztecs two main deities. The main pyramid insi… Cortés was ruthless and merciless. El Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlán era el templo principal en la capital del imperio azteca. They were considered vital, life-giving, and nourishing. Cortés also had the luxury of a Mayan liaison, known as La Malinche, who could interpret Aztec plans and actions for him. Believing they owed a debt to the gods, the sacrifices were meant to appease and satisfy the deities that controlled the weather, the bounty of crops, and the happiness of the civilization. Fue construido en una especie de capas al hacerlo cadavez mas grande 2. It contained 250,000 people, more than any European city of the era. It's the name given to a vast complex of religious and civic buildings that were once the center of the city of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire. The Spanish cathedral looms, just as Templo Mayor once did, over the city’s public square. Mayor). The world itself could crumble into dust. Templo Mayor Museum . It was believed that these macabre claims were perhaps just propaganda meant to justify the Spaniards’ destruction of the Aztec civilization — until the 2017 discovery proved them to be true. A third, lower temple represented the ancient serpent god Quetzalcoatl. Artists were among the commoners of society, and the patrons were the rulers and nobility. In a letter to the Spanish king, Charles I, Cortés described the Aztec capital: “The city is as big as Seville or Cordoba. El Período Posclásico es la última etapa del desarrollo independiente de la civilización mesoamericana.Como los otros periodos de la cronología mesoamericana, el inicio de este período varía en el tiempo, aunque se suele señalar la caída de las ciudades-Estado del Epiclásico del centro de Mesoamérica como el principio del Posclásico [cita requerida]. Gamio’s subsequent digs around the property revealed serpents made of stone. Ver más ideas sobre Aztecas, Cultura azteca, Prehispanico. Shrines stood on the peak of both pyramids, which could be accessed by sweeping stone staircases. Antes del Templo Mayor, sin embargo, los aztecas construyeron un santuario provisional de madera y paja, debido principalmente a la falta de piedras. The women and children might have been captured alongside warriors, then sold as slaves to be sacrificed. She was dismembered and decapitated. In a flash, he’d plunge the knife into the chest of the victim and wrench out the victim’s still-beating heart from their chest. Ver más ideas sobre templo mayor mexico, templo, ciudad de méxico. According to Aztec myth, her severed head was the moon itself. Without human sacrifice, the Aztecs believed, the sun might not rise. Après la conquête espagnole, au XVIe siècle, le Templo Mayor fut détruit et son emplacement exact fut oublié, à la suite des multiples chantiers … This discovery revived great interest in the Templo Mayor, the Great Temple of the Aztecs (Price & Feinman, 2013). 15-oct-2019 - Explora el tablero de Ana Maria "Templo mayor mexico" en Pinterest. In particular, they described the horrifying sight within a temple: a chamber filled wall to ceiling with human skulls. Wikimedia CommonsThe ancient Templo Mayor stood at the heart of the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan. Museo del Templo Mayor: El museo del Templo Mayor contiene ocho salas de exhibición que narran la historia del sitio arqueológico. Spanish soldiers viciously destroyed Templo Mayor and the city of Tenochtitlan. On any given year, the Aztecs sacrificed thousands — some estimate that the Aztecs sacrificed up to 20,000 in a year — in their determination to appease the gods. discovery of grisly child sacrifices in Peru, the ancient Chinese sacrificed puppies instead of humans. At the center of the city was the main Aztec temple-pyramid called Templo Mayor. Templo Mayor (el Gran Templo) En el Templo Mayor los aztecas adoraban a los mismos dioses que adoraban en el templo de Tlatelolco. However, archeologists studying the teeth of several victims determined that many of those killed spent significant time in Tenochtitlan — slave or not, they had been absorbed into life in the Aztec holy city. El mayor número de ofrendas se encontró en esta etapa, debajo del piso de la plataforma; ello nos habla del apogeo de Tenochtitlan y del número de tributarios bajo su control. Upon hearing of an uprising among Aztec religious leaders, his second-in-command trapped them in a temple during a religious ceremony and sent in soldiers to massacre them. Tenochtitlan, la capital del Imperio azteca, fue fundada en un islote hacia 1325. FlickrThe Spanish estimated that the wall of skulls they came across in the 16th century featured 130,000 severed heads. El Templo Mayor azteca de Tenochitlán y sus significados Prestentación El Museo Barbier-Mueller de Arte Precolombino de Barcelona y el Instituto Universitario de Cultura de la Universitat Pompeu Fabra organizan por cuarto año consecutivo la jornada Arte y Mito, que en esta ocasión reflexionará sobre la cultura azteca y los últimos hallazgos arqueológicos en México. Por así decirlo, se “atragantaba” con el tributo de la periferia que periódicamente rechazaba su autoridad. Hallada una ofrenda azteca de un jaguar junto al Templo Mayor, en México "No sabemos si bajo la ofrenda del jaguar hay una tumba real, la cual seguimos buscando", explica Leonardo López Luján, el director del Proyecto Templo Mayor, a National Geographic España. Two years after Cortés landed on the coast of Mexico with an army of soldiers, he completely destroyed Tenochtitlan. [1] El responsable de la masacre fue Pedro de Alvarado —apodado Tonatiuh, El Sol por … The Templo Mayor was first constructed in the reign of Itzcoatl (r. 1427-1440 CE), improved upon by his successor Motecuhzoma I (r. 1440-1469 CE), and again enlarged during the reign of Ahuitzotl (r. 1486-1502 CE). The Spanish, in building their cathedral, even used stones from the smoldering remains of Templo Mayor itself. For example, by the early 16th century, Tenochtitlan is estimated to have been three to five square miles (eight to thirteen square kilometers), and have a population of between 200,000 and 300,000 people. The Spaniards were simply blown away, not only by its size, but by the beauty and majesty of the many temples and palaces of which Templo Mayor was the … Between 1325 and 1519, the Templo Mayor was expanded, enlarged, and reconstructed during seven main building phases, which likely corresponded with different rulers, or tlatoani (“speaker”), taking office. Only recently has the world begun to understand the hidden history of the Aztec’s “Main Temple,” where a wall with thousands of skulls was said to be buried. Could such a thing exist? Other Spaniards described the Aztec capital in more nightmarish terms. Archeologists investigating the site of Templo Mayor in 2017 discovered a rack of almost 700 human skulls, most of them women and children. El poder colonial erigió sobre sus ruinas una nueva ciudad, por lo que durante muchos siglos el santuario principal de los aztecas quedó olvidado. Existieron muchas grandes pirámides antes de que se estableciera el Imperio azteca y estas pirámides fueron declaradas sagradas por los aztecas y utilizadas como templos. The grand temple was constructed of twin pyramids and stood 90 feet high. De acuerdo a la leyenda de la cultura azteca, el Templo Mayor ubicado en la ciudad de Tenochtitlán, se encontraba exactamente emplazado en el lugar donde el dios Huitzilopochtli envió a los mexicas la señal de que habían encontrado la tierra prometida, es decir, el águila sobre un cactus de nopal devorando a una serpiente. El Templo Mayor de los Aztecas, Ciudad de México. And yet, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico City, contains echoes of its Aztec roots. Templo mayor 1. Now imagine a complex even bigger, formed by over 70 structures with taller pyramids - this is Templo Mayor! Etapa V … Cuando por fin lograron obtener los materiales necesarios de construcción, iniciaron la construcción de un centro ceremonial más digno de su dios. Templo Mayor MuseumThe Templo Mayor’s wall of skulls, or tzompantli. It is believed that the skull rack served three purposes and could be found in most Aztec cities. Many Spanish accounts claimed as such. FlickrA stone serpent at Templo Mayor in modern-day Mexico City. Templos gemelos At the opening ceremony of the sixth Templo Mayor in 1487, some 4,000 people were sacrificed over four days. La historia del templo azteca, al igual que otros aspectos religiosos y culturales de la vida azteca, se extendió mucho más allá del imperio azteca. Construction of the temple began in 1325, around the same time as the founding of the grand Aztec capital, and over the next 200 years, Templo Mayor would undergo multiple reconstructions, enlargements, and revisions. The Spanish estimated that the wall of skulls they came across in the 16th century featured 130,000 severed heads. Finally, the island was large enough to support a large population with many markets, public buildings, temples and palaces. The intense violence of the sacrifices, then, served an important and positive purpose to the Aztecs. Templo Mayor is the Spanish word for ''Main Temple.'' Conoce el Templo Mayor, centro del imperio azteca (Foto: Shutterstock) El descubrimiento del Templo Mayor en 1978 fue cuando se encontró por accidente una asombrosa escultura de Coyolxauhqui, una importante deidad de los antiguos mexicanos, por obras públicas en el … Si deseas consultar otras entradas asociadas a la visita al Museo del Templo Mayor haz clic en la etiqueta Guía al Templo Mayor en la barra inferior. He brought guns, which meant his troops could easily overpower the Aztec warriors. Still, the grand Aztec temple in its entirety remained elusive. The Aztec Templo Mayor - A Visualization, The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City 2001, ISBN 0-87480-690-9 Alcina Franch, José . It was actually closer to 700. Conoce el Templo Mayor, centro del imperio azteca (Foto: Shutterstock) El descubrimiento del Templo Mayor en 1978 fue cuando se encontró por accidente una asombrosa escultura de Coyolxauhqui, una importante deidad de los antiguos mexicanos, por obras públicas en el … Next, read about the discovery of grisly child sacrifices in Peru. As the rest of the city drops around it, Templo Mayor will rise. Muchos turistas pierden la oportunidad de visitar este destacado sitio arqueológico porque no se dan cuenta de que está allí. The Templo Mayor museum contains eight exhibit halls that narrate the history of the archaeological site. El recinto del Templo Mayor albergaba no sólo el templo doble dedicado a Tláloc y Huitzilopochtli, el cual puede ser admirado hoy en día. A Spanish soldier named Andrés de Tapia claimed the rack held tens of thousands of skulls “placed on a very large theater made of lime and stone… many heads of the dead stuck in lime with the teeth facing outward.” Tapia calculated that the wall held 136,000 skulls, but this has long been considered an exaggeration. Templo Mayor is an Aztec archaeological site and museum located in the heart of Mexico City. These rulers, and others, each employed the resources and labour given in tribute by neighbouring states in order to build a more impressive monument than their predecessors.The location was chosen with purpose a… Wikimedia CommonsTwo years after Cortés landed on the coast of Mexico with an army of soldiers, he completely destroyed Tenochtitlan. Wikimedia CommonsSpanish conquistador Hernán Cortés arrived in the New World when he was 18. Wikimedia CommonsThe Aztecs sacrificed humans to appease the sun god. Many have seen the pyramids of Teotihuacan. Other structures descend into the earth at a rate of about 20 feet per century, but Templo Mayor remains more still. Se dará un panorama general del pueblo mexica o azteca partiendo desde que fundan su ciudad de Tenochtitlan, y la manera en que se desarrolla su vida desde el nacimiento hasta la muerte, y los lugares a donde irían después de morir. During a ritual sacrifice, prisoners were painted and dressed in bright colors. Today, one can visit a Templo Mayor museum beside Mexico City’s Metropolitan Cathedral. También estaban ahí la llamada Casa de las Águilas, el Templo de Ehécatl, el Tzompantli, el Juego de Pelota y el Calmecac, entre otras edificaciones. It was a central gathering place in Aztec life within the city of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the once-thriving and sophisticated empire, and was thus also the center of religious life. Saturday, January 19th, 2019. Although the form of the temple constantly changed, and was rebuilt seven times before Cortés’s arrival, the location remained fixed because it was believed moving the site of the temple would invoke the wrath of the gods. This was an area dedicated to the religious and historical traditions of the Aztec, and the Templo Mayor was the largest of the structures located there. Descargar esta imagen: La escultura Serpiente en templo azteca (Templo Mayor) en las ruinas de Tenochtitlan - Ciudad de México, México - HT74X2 de la biblioteca de Alamy de millones de fotografías, ilustraciones y vectores de alta resolución. A stone serpent at Templo Mayor in modern-day Mexico City. This is the currently selected item. Today, political dealings continue at Palacio Nacional. The Aztecs’ center of the universe became Centro Historico, or El Centro, the apex of public and religious life. En 1978, se desenterró una enorme piedra de 8 toneladas (7.000 kilogramos) que representa a Coyolxauhqui (la diosa azteca de la luna), que marca la ubicación del templo, un lugar de reunión sagrado para los aztecas durante los años 1300 y 1400. Templo Mayor in Tenochtitlan. Templo Mayor: sitio azteca en la Ciudad de México El Templo Mayor, el gran templo de los aztecas, se encuentra en el corazón de la ciudad de México . At Templo Mayor, archeologists have determined that although many of the skulls belonged to men likely of warrior age but the tower uncovered in 2017 contained a surprisingly high percentage of skulls from women and children. There, priests used obsidian blades sharper than present-day surgical steel to slice into the vertebrae of the neck to decapitate the victim. No amount of ritual sacrifice could stop Cortés, and the Spaniard ended the world as the Aztecs knew it. The Sun Stone (The Calendar Stone) Coyolxauhqui Stone. It was dedicated to two gods, Huitzilopochtli, god of war, and Tlaloc, god of rain and agriculture. AZTEC TEMPLE 'TEMPLO MAYOR'. Like a coiled serpent, the mystery of Templo Mayor began to unravel as the decades went on. It has been dubbed “Huey Tzompantli,” which loosely translates to “The Great Wall of Skulls.”, “We were expecting just men… as warriors would be,” noted Rodrigo Bolanos, a biological anthropologist involved in the unearthing of Templo Mayor. Por ejemplo, la Gran Pirámide de Cholula comenzó a construirse en el siglo III a. C. y se completó en el siglo I… One pyramid represented Tlāloc, the Aztec god of rain; the other honored Huītzilōpōchtli, the god of sun and war. Desde entonces, se han hecho más descubrimientos, y el templo principal del pueblo azteca ahora es un museo y un sitio de Patrimonio Mundial de la UNESCO. Then, in 2017, another structure was discovered at Templo Mayor: a wall comprised of more than 600 skulls. There, the Aztecs would stretch a victim across a sacrificial stone. The on-site Museo del Templo Mayor (included in the site’s admission price) houses a model of Tenochtitlán and artifacts from the site, and gives a good overview of Aztec, aka Mexica, civilization, though with little signage in English, unlike the ruins. As crowds gathered, the victims were dragged up the grand steps of the temple and to the peak of its pyramids. En 2006 , un gran monolito de Tlaltecuhtli , la diosa que puede dar y devorar la vida, también fue desenterrado del Templo Mayor. As the dirt of the ages fell away, he found himself staring at a carving of a woman. Coyolxauhqui, the Aztec goddess of the moon. The buildings are now ruins located in the center of modern Mexico City. And the god Tlaloc, who was a rain and agricultural deity. Tenochtitlan was the most important city in the Aztec, or more properly Mexica, empire and with a population of between 200,000 and 300,000, one of the largest cities in the world when Hernan Cortés arrived in 1521. Each had a large hole on either side of the cranium where it was strung like a bead onto a thick wooden pole, creating a literal wall of staring, empty sockets, and dirt-sullied pale bone. When Hernán Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan around 1519, he would have noticed Templo Mayor right away. Gran templo en el centro ceremonial de Tenochtitlan, la capital del reino de los aztecas. Spanish conquerors had described massive pyramids and walls packed with human skulls. The lives lost in service to the creation of this wall would create a grisly complication in the scholarship of Aztec sacrifices. Beneath Mexico City lies what the Aztecs believed to be the center of the universe: Templo Mayor. Descargue esta imagen gratuita sobre Aztecas Templo Mayor Adoratorios de la vasta biblioteca de imágenes y videos de dominio público de Pixabay. The property had belonged to the 16th-century Spanish conqueror, Alonso de Ávila, and historical texts had long claimed that Templo Mayor lay there too. Wikimedia CommonsToday, one can visit a Templo Mayor museum beside Mexico City’s Metropolitan Cathedral. As it turned out, they were not all captured, sold, and immediately sacrificed to the gods. The woman was not really a woman at all. Para la mejor vista de nuestra página web, ... Templo Mayor, México D.F. Museo y Zona Arqueológica del Templo Mayor. El Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlán era el templo principal en la capital del imperio azteca. Templo Paisaje Increibles Paisajes Fotografia Lugares Yacimiento Arqueológico Viajes A México Horizonte Parisino Maine. It dominated both the Sacred Precinct and the entire city. Sometimes women sacrifices were decapitated and dismembered in imitation of the Coyolxāuhqui myth. 10 DE MARZO. The priest would hold the heart to the sky for Huītzilōpōchtli, the sun god, to see, and then smash it against the sacrificial stone. The Templo Mayor was no exception. Este templo azteca tenía dos tramos de escalones empinados; los constructores diseñaron los escalones para asegurarse de que un cuerpo lanzado hacia abajo cayera directamente al fondo. Gran templo en el centro ceremonial de Tenochtitlan, la capital del reino de los aztecas. Los Aztecas regían la gran parte de México entre los siglos XV y XVI. La construcción del templo principal de este recinto se realizó en siete etapas y alcanzó una altura aproximada de 45 metros. According to Aztec sources, as many as 84,000 people, all made captive in wars against their neighbours, were sacrificed on a single occasion to mark the consecration of the Templo Mayor, or Great Pyramid, of Tenochtitlan in 1487. Huitzilopochtli, the god of war and a sun god. Or had the Spanish, in their feverish destruction of Aztec society, razed Templo Mayor completely? Olmec mask (Olmec-style mask) Tomado de Eduardo Matos Moctezuma, “Una visita al Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan”, Arqueología Mexicana, Especial 56, El Templo Mayor, a un siglo de su descubrimiento, pp. Historians used to believe this was mere anti-Aztec propoganda — until they made a startling discovery in 2017. This deity was slain and dismembered by her brother Huitzilopochtli, the war god, according to legend. Aztec legend claimed that Coyolxāuhqui plotted against her mother, only to be killed by her brother, Huītzilōpōchtli (“wit-si-lo-poch-tli”), the Aztec god of sun and war — and one of the deities honored at Templo Mayor. However, the Aztec people dislike the ruler for his constant demand for tribute → when the Spanish invaded, the people turned against him, leading to … This means that it was one of the largest cities in the world at the time and larger than any in Europe. Two, it honored Huītzilōpōchtli. Le Templo Mayor (« Grand Temple » en espagnol), était le nom de la grande pyramide à degrés de Tenochtitlan, la capitale des Aztèques, ainsi que, par synecdoque, du centre cérémoniel dans lequel elle se situaits 1 (également appelé Recinto sagrado en espagnol, c'est-à-dire « Enceinte sacrée »). Se encontraba en el centro de la ciudad donde las actividades rituales y ceremoniales más importantes de la vida azteca tomaban lugar. She was the Aztec moon goddess, Coyolxāuhqui (pronounced “coy-ol-shau-key”). ¿Listos para una visita guiada de dos horas? Universes in Universe. → Montezuma II is the patron of Templo Mayor. Cuáles fueron los principales templos aztecas. Less than two decades later, he razed the Templo Mayor and the city of Tenochtitlan. 10 - 32. The city of Tenochtitlan was established in 1325 on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco (much of which has since been filled in to accommodate Mexico City which now exists on this site), and with the city’s foundation the original structure of the Templo Mayor was built. Commonly known today as the Templo Mayor (Great Temple), its two tower-shrines soared high above a base measuring roughly 328 by 262 feet. Artist's depiction of Tenochtitlan with Templo Mayor on the left. 01-nov-2014 - “The seven major building phases of the Templo Mayor began with a simple structure, probably dedicated to Huitzilopochtli, built in 1325 when Tenochtitlan was founded.” The Aztecs considered Templo Mayor, or the “Main Temple,” to be the center of the universe. In 1913, sunlight touched Templo Mayor for the first time in centuries when a Mexican archaeologist named Manuel Gamio, recently appointed Inspector of Ancient Monuments, discovered its southwest corner beneath a demolished house. To the Aztecs, Cortés may have seemed to possess godly might. La dualidad hombre /mujer, punto de partida de la cosmovisión mesoamericana, en la que ambos se complementan y se necesitan para existir, dando continuidad al ciclo de vida, es el hilo conductor de la exposición temporal "Semillas de vida. It was actually closer to 700. First European Map of Tenochtitlan (1524). They can see Aztec artifacts: stone statues, obsidian knives, and the skulls of sacrificial victims. It was obliterated by Spanish invaders in 1521 and has remained dormant beneath the bustling streets of the city above. The Aztec Empire was a civilization in central Mexico that thrived in the time before the arrival of European explorers during the Age of Exploration . Botanical remains found on the skulls at Templo Mayor suggest that they were decorated with flowers, indicating that the Aztecs viewed the sacrifices as more than violent, and perhaps even as something beautiful and graceful. 22-feb-2019 - Explora el tablero de Alberto Castilleja "Templo Mayor" en Pinterest. In Aztec tradition, the location of the Templo Mayor is said to have been the site on which the Aztec first arrived in the Valley of Mexico after they discovered the sign from their god, time period before the Aztec established the city of Tenochtitlan, https://www.historycrunch.com/aztec-temple-templo-mayor.html#/. El Templo Mayor es un espacio sagrado dual que incorpora las dualidades centro-periferia. Templo Mayor es la denominación en español de huey teocalli, el gran templo en la capital azteca de Tenochtitlan, fundada en el año 1325, que fue conquistada y destruída por los españoles en 1521. The city of Tenochtitlan equally impressed the Spanish. In 1521, Cortés lay waste to Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs considered Templo Mayor, or the “Main Temple,” to be the center of the universe. Jonathan Glancey investigates. The Templo Mayor’s wall of skulls, or tzompantli. Descubre qué secretos esconde. It was a central gathering place in Aztec life within the city of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the once-thriving and sophisticated empire, and was thus also the center of religious life. And in the end, it may be the Aztecs who get the last laugh. Over the ruins of the grand Aztec capital, the Spanish built their own city. The Templo Mayor (Great Temple) was one of the main temples of the Aztecs.It was in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City.Its architectural style belongs to the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica.The temple was called the huei teocalli in the Nahuatl language. At the base of the pyramid, stone serpents stood guard. Siendo muy religiosos, construyeron varios templos en cada ciudad que formaban. The form of Aztec sacrifices often varied. Lo que queda del Gran Templo de los Aztecas (Templo Mayor) se encuentra justo en el centro de la Ciudad de México, pero muchos turistas lo extrañan. Inside Templo Mayor, The Mythic Aztec Temple Of Skulls That Terrified The Spanish Conquistadors, Kaleena Fraga is a French-speaking, history-loving writer based in Brooklyn. The pinnacle of Aztec architecture was the Templo Mayor, a vast religious building – with a blood-soaked history. El templo azteca no es solamente el centro de la ciudad, sino que también es el lugar más alto. Una fruslería. The victim’s body would then be moved to another chamber. Templo Mayor is the name of the main temple in the Aztec capital city of Tenochtitlan. Learn its history and important visitor information. Los Aztecas su templo mayor La Metropoli de Teotihuacan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUodH2eg3Pk

templo mayor azteca

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