Replanting damaged areas will depend on the nature of damage caused, the geography, and extent of infrastructure development in the area. An estimated 26 percent of mangroves have been destroyed around the Indian Ocean through conversion to farm fields, aquaculture ponds, or from other causes, exposing the coast to accelerated erosion. The finding follows a report published earlier this year (January) which said that mangroves were not effective against tsunamis (see Mangroves do not protect against tsunamis). Lindsay Stringer receives funding from the Economic and Social Research Council through the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP). These multi-million dollar investments haven’t always been successful though – it’s not as straightforward as just planting trees. Many millions of dollars have been invested in replanting efforts in several of the more than 100 countries with mangroves – as this value has become more widely recognised, and with the effects of storms such as Haiyan. Additional credits and copyright information. But a clear understanding is needed of the mangrove forests’ role in underpinning the livelihoods of some of the poorest people living along the coast. My question is: Why are we destroying them? One study was conducted in the aftermath of the massive 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that devastated huge areas in Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and India, as well as killing more than 230,000 people. The animation shows the impacts of tsunami on coastal areas in the presence and in the absence of an intact mangrove forest ecosystem fringes (sites 17, 18 and 21). Briefing by: Contributors include more than 10,000 highly qualified scientists and 46 Nobel Prize winners. This is the finding of a controversial new scientific report, just published in the international journal, Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science. See also: Biodiversity; Biogeography; Coastal landforms; Ecological communities; Ecosystem; Mangrove; Wetlands, Tsunamis are long waves generated by major geologic events, including underwater earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, which rapidly flood adjacent and distant coastlines and coastal communities. Recognized as an award-winning gateway to scientific knowledge, AccessScience is an amazing online resource that contains high-quality reference material written specifically for students. P. S. Kumar, Does mangrove serve as bioshield against strong cyclone, storm and tsunami?. Mangrove forests reduce the impact of tsunamis by reducing both the height and the velocity of the incoming waves, and by distributing water among the canals and creeks of the mangroves, thus decreasing the level of inundation. Write an article and join a growing community of more than 117,500 academics and researchers from 3,792 institutions. Mangroves are shrubs and trees that grow in coastal saline waters in the tropics, where the water temperature is above 20 degrees Celsius. The ‘mangrove status’ is a combination of pre-tsunami aerial extent of the front mangrove and pre-tsunami mangrove destruction (see text). 1) Mangroves protect coastlines from tsunamis In 2004, an earthquake in the Indian Ocean triggered a catastrophic tsunami that battered shorelines across India and Southeast Asia. For example, certain mangrove species can block or buffer wave action via their stems and aerial roots, which can measure 30 m (98 ft) in height. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use. As widely reported, extensive areas of mangroves can reduce the loss of life and damage caused by tsunamis by taking the first brunt of the impact and by dissipating the energy of the wave as it passes through the mangrove area. To protect Indian nuclear reactors from the fury of tsunamis of the kind that has hit Japan, eminent agriculture scientist M S Swaminathan has suggested that the government promote the growth of mangroves and similar other 'bio-shields' along the coast adjoining the atomic energy installations. Researchers say mangroves absorbed the impact of the tsunami Healthy mangrove forests helped save lives in the Asia tsunami disaster, a new report has said. Mangrove forests, common along tropical coasts, can provide a protective shield against destructive cyclones and reduce deaths, a study has found. Your IP information is The finding follows a report published earlier this year (January) which said that mangroves were not effective against tsunamis (see Mangroves do not protect against tsunamis). But unless planted and managed carefully, those who depend most upon the mangroves for their survival could lose out. Why trees and not, say, concrete? Mangrove forests grow along the coast in fine, salty sediments across the tropics and sub-tropics. See also: Deforestation; Earthquake; Ocean waves; Root (botany); Tsunami, Unfortunately, the role of mangroves as living barriers has not always been appreciated, and many mangrove forests have fallen prey to developers without regard to the environmental effects. Such floods typically have devastating impacts on both land and human-made structures. AccessScience Editors, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1036/1097-8542.BR0601171, Mangrove forests are taxonomically diverse assemblages of trees and shrubs that form the dominant plant communities in tidal, saline wetlands along sheltered tropical and subtropical coasts. Mangrove forests t hrive in the intertidal zones o f tropical . 104.232.27.237 The extent to which mangroves reduce the damage caused by typhoons (as well as tsunami) is still debated, but the evidence suggests that mangroves provide an … However, the elimination of many mangrove habitats, predominantly by human activities (for example, deforestation, land reclamation for tourist enterprises, and fragmentation caused by urbanization), has created a scenario in which coastal areas (particularly in Southeast Asia) are more vulnerable to the destructive effects of a tsunami event. But more importantly in this case is their role in coastal protection – something that will grow in importance if storms the magnitude of Haiyan become more frequent with the effects of climate change. Other investigations of smaller tsunami events since 2004 have reached similar conclusions. / This is largely due to land clearance for agriculture and fish farming, major coastal development, rapid urbanisation, and pollution. See also: Coastal engineering; Conservation of resources; Indian Ocean; Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. They have several ecological and physical functions that are essential in maintaining biodiversity and protecting populations of humans and animals. At the interface between the ocean and earth, mangroves play a fundamental role in reducing monsoon flooding. It’s important to develop a clear picture of who, what for, and how the mangroves are used and governed, as a pre-requisite to large-scale planting. Mangroves certainly offer a means to mitigate climate change, conserve biodiversity, and provide a wide range of goods and services as well as protecting coasts against erosion and storm surges. (Credit: National Park Service), Mangrove forests provide protection against tsunamis. Some researchers who are skeptical about the ability of mangroves to protect against tsunamis have noted that mangroves might be more capable of protecting against tropical storm surges (6, 10). This is a short but very explicit video showing how mangroves protect us from tsunamis. Although there was significant loss of life, with an estimated 227,000 people killed, scientists have since concluded that the tragedy would have been much worse if mangrove forests were absent. It will also depend on how the financial and practical aspects of planting and replanting are addressed, and how local communities are involved. They protect the coasts against storm surges and tsunamis. The global economic value that can be extracted from mangrove forests is estimated by the UNEP at US$1.6 billion per year. Efforts to plant and replant more mangroves, such as those planned in the Philippines, are laudable. Let your librarian know about the award-winning gateway to the most trustworthy and accurate scientific information. New Scientist: Following the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean, several studies examined satellite data to determine the ability of mangrove forests to protect communities from the destructive effects of such seismic sea waves.One study found an 8% reduction in fatalities in villages protected by mangrove forests. Recent research has revealed that mangroves, along with salt marshes and other wetlands, can sequester carbon much more permanently and effectively than terrestrial forests, offering an important means to mitigate global climate change. Coastal mangroves and green belts offer little or no protection against the deadly might of a tsunami. The loss of these ecosystems can contribute to global warming. Reforesting these coasts with 19m trees, particularly the extensively damaged islands of Leyte and Samar, is a key part of bolstering the first line of defence against future storms. Coral reefs provide a physical barrier that reaches the sea surface, causing waves to break offshore and allowing them to dissipate most of their destructive energy before reaching the shore, while mangroves soak up destructive wave energy and acts as a buffer against erosion. Mangroves reduce wave height by as much as 66 percent over 100 meters of forest providing a vital buffer against the impacts of storms, tsunamis, … Storm surges differ from tsunamis in having shorter wavelengths and relatively more of their energy near the water surface ( 9 ). Accessibility policy. The dense tree root system keeps the sediment carried from the soil above from pouring into the ocean all at once, which stabilizes the banks, protects the corals from choking, reduces turbidity, and filters and traps pollutants. Mangroves provide essential habitat and coastline protection but are under threat. Mangrove ecosystems provide essential benefits and services for food security, maintaining fisheries and forest products, and protecting against storms, tsunamis, and rising sea levels, to preventing coastal erosion, regulating coastal water quality, and the provision of habitats for endangered marine species. One study was conducted in the aftermath of the massive 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that devastated huge areas in Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and India, as … Some groups (often the poor and those with limited livelihood options) are more dependent on certain areas of the mangrove forests, and planting replacement mangroves elsewhere could change or remove how they can access those essential forest benefits. You may already have access to this content. Mangrove trees' thickets of stilt-like roots protect coastal land from erosion and help mitigate the damage of tsunamis and hurricanes.They may also serve as a … Copyright © McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. Reports suggest up to 80% of the money is likely to be channelled to residents to engage them in tree planting activities as part of the country’s cash-for-work programme. For example, studies analyzing the effects of tsunamis on shoreline areas have determined that mangroves suffering from various types of ecological degradation were less resistant than unaltered pristine mangroves. For example, studies analyzing the effects of tsunamis on shoreline areas have determined that mangroves suffering from various types of ecological degradation were less resistant than unaltered pristine mangroves. The communities use various formal and informal rules and practices to govern and manage the mangroves. Mangrove forests 'can reduce impact of tsunamis' - SciDev.Net [NEW DELHI] Dense mangrove forests growing along the coasts of tropical and sub-tropical countries can help reduce the devastating impact of tsunamis and coastal storms by absorbing some of the waves’ energy, say scientists. Mangroves represent far more than just a ‘bio-shield’. The struggle to save mangroves like these in Ecuador is a global challenge that no single government or organization can … The role of mangroves in coastal risk reduction 13 2.1 Mangroves reduce wave damage 14 2.2 Mangroves reduce damage from large storms 16 2.3 Mangroves can help to reduce tsunami damage 18 2.4 Mangroves reduce erosion and bind soils together 20 2.5 Mangroves may keep up with sea level rise 22 Section 3. The formal institutions and governance structures that many of the current restoration and replanting efforts operate through ignore these. Researchers in the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean found a remarkable situation: In areas that had pristine mangrove forests, only 7% of the villages hit by the tsunami were severely damaged; in contrast, in areas with mangrove degradation or elimination (chiefly as the result of development by tourist industries or aquaculture companies), the devastation of villages reached 80–100%. Having just returned from a study of mangrove forests in Vietnam, we found those living alongside the mangroves use them as a source of food (fish, crabs, clams, worms, octopus, shrimps, jellyfish), either subsisting from them or using their natural resources as a safety net when other food supplies fail. M. Maza, J. L. Lara, and I. J. Losada, Tsunami wave interaction with mangrove forests: A 3-D numerical approach. The extent to which mangroves reduce the damage caused by typhoons (as well as tsunami) is still debated, but the evidence suggests that mangroves provide an effective natural buffer against storms, flooding, coastal erosion and strong waves. All rights reserved. Steven Orchard receives funding through an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) scholarship. https://doi.org/10.1036/1097-8542.BR0601171, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.07.013, https://doi.org/10.1080/21513732.2014.997292, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2015.01.002, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Tsunami Mitigation by Mangroves and Coastal Forests, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Tsunami, Yale Environment 360: A Decade After Asian Tsunami, New Forests Protect the Coast, Additional credits and copyright information. “They are very important for protecting coastal areas, because they can absorb wave energy,” he says. Thus, they could help dissipate tsunamis, reducing their devastation. They frequently reinforce existing power relations and inequalities, and fail to take into account the importance of community buy-in that can make or break ecological rehabilitation initiatives. D. E. Marois and W. J. Mitsch, Coastal protection from tsunamis and cyclones provided by mangrove wetlands—a review. against tsunami during 2004. The finding follows a … It adds to a growing debate on using mangroves as bioshields in coastal areas. Supercyclone Amphan is the first tropical cyclone to have hit the Indian Coast this summer. Professor in Environment and Development, Director, Sustainability Research Institute, University of Leeds. The tsunami had only a small impact on lagoons that show no cryptic ecological degradation (sites 2, 3, 23 and 24) or that are protected by the distance from the shore and by frontal Rhizophora spp. Exhibition Video Shows How Mangroves Can Protect Coastal Areas From Tsunami The depleting mangroves around the world have caused major environmental concern since they work as a carbon sink and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. MORE THAN 8700 articles covering all major scientific disciplines and encompassing the McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology and McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology, 115,000-PLUS definitions from the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 3000 biographies of notable scientific figures, MORE THAN 19,000 downloadable images and animations illustrating key topics, ENGAGING VIDEOS highlighting the life and work of award-winning scientists, SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY and additional readings to guide students to deeper understanding and research, LINKS TO CITABLE LITERATURE help students expand their knowledge using primary sources of information. Privacy Notice. P. Nehru and P. Balasubramanian, Re-colonizing mangrove species in tsunami devastated habitats at Nicobar Islands, India. A study found villages … Similar considerations apply in devising ways to protect the remaining mangrove areas, already drastically reduced by more than a third of their global extent. The study also found that beach forest trees that had been planted to protect against typhoons (as hurricanes are called in the region) helped protect land. Copyright © 2010–2020, The Conversation US, Inc. Mangroves have adapted to their intertidal environments and are able to withstand furious high-energy tidal events. Effectiveness of mangrove forests to protect . Usually mangrove forest do not slow down coastal erosion, however they may enhance coastal accretion. high water events (storms, tsunamis). Mangroves have a complex root system that efficiently dissipates seawave energy protecting the coastal areas from tsunamis, storm surge, and soil erosion. Mangroves grow in partially flooded sediments along thousands of kilometers of the world’s tropical coastlines. In places like this stretch of Ecuadorian coast near the city of Guayaquil, losing the mangroves would portend the loss of the mud crabs—the primary source of income for some local fishing communities—and have a severe impact on surrounding ecosystems as well. Finally, detailed consideration needs to be given to the scale and distribution of costs and benefits linked to mangrove restoration and rehabilitation, not just in the Philippines, but globally. ing tsunami events. Thus, the preservation and recolonization of mangrove forests are necessary steps to ensure the barrier protection afforded by these strategic greenbelts against tsunami events. If the long-term sustainability of any replanting investment is to be assured, then it is vital to understand how the mangroves will be used once the short-term cash to communities for assisting replanting is gone, so that the new forests are not exploited unsustainably. University of Leeds provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation UK. Another found that a 100-m-wide band of dense mangrove growth could reduce … One of the most important functions is to provide a barrier or buffer between the land and the sea, with mangroves protecting landward coastal zones against potentially devastating ocean events, including tsunamis. There is growing evidence that mangroves’ dense root and branch networks are very important for protecting coastal areas, because they can absorb wave energy. 184.73.249.165, Red mangroves thriving in southern Florida at Big Cypress National Preserve. It adds to a growing debate on using mangroves as bioshields in coastal areas. To learn more about subscribing to AccessScience, or to request a no-risk trial of this award-winning scientific reference for your institution, fill in your information and a member of our Sales Team will contact you as soon as possible. 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how do mangroves protect the coast from tsunamis

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