Air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affects lakes and damages forests. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. Canada occupies the top half of the North American continent, where it borders the United States — Canada’s only neighboring nation — to its south (and north-east, via the isolated state of Alaska ). There are pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories that are about 2.6 billion years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. Canada shares a 5,525-mile- (8,890-km-) long border with the United States (including Alaska)—the longest border in the world not patrolled by military forces—and the overwhelming majority of its population lives within 185 miles (300 km) of the international boundary. Despite this, 79.7 percent of Canada's population resides in urban areas, where population densities are increasing. Canada is the world's second-largest country by area but its population, at slightly less than that of the state of California, is small by comparison. The Arctic, when defined as everything north of the tree line, covers most of Nunavut and the northernmost parts of Northwest Territories, Yukon, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador. The geography and climate of Canada are important factors that shape life for those who settle in Canada. , The Shield cannot support intensive agriculture, although there is subsistence agriculture and small dairy farms in many of the river valleys and around the abundant lakes, particularly in the southern regions. Hydroelectric power and pulp and paper industries are also important. A small area of southwestern Saskatchewan is drained by Battle Creek, which empties into the Milk River.. It is a part of the Pacific Northwest and is Canada's third most populated province behind Ontario and Quebec. , The Hudson Bay watershed drains over a third of Canada. The great plains consist of a large, flat, and treeless area of land.  Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi); additionally, its border with the United States is the world's longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi). The Canadian Shield is known for its vast minerals, such as emeralds, diamonds and copper. Canada is part of North America. The nearby, but less known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. , The lowest point is sea level at 0 m, whilst the highest point is Mount Logan, Yukon, at 5,959 m / 19,550 ft 60°34′01″N 140°24′18″W / 60.567°N 140.405°W / 60.567; -140.405 (Mount Logan, Yukon). This watershed irrigates the agriculturally important areas of inner British Columbia (such as the Okanagan and Kootenay valleys), and is used to produce hydroelectricity. For historical political boundaries of Canada, see, History of the petroleum industry in Canada, List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories, "Scientists shocked by Arctic permafrost thawing 70 years sooner than predicted", "Canada Facts: 25 Interesting and Fun Facts – not only for Kids", "The Atlas of Canada – Physical Components of Watersheds", "The High Subarctic Forest-Tundra of Northwestern Canada: Position, Width, and Vegetation Gradients in Relation to Climate", "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated", "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "Weather Data: Canada, Saskatchewan, Midale, 1937, July", "Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data", "Ottawa Macdonald Cartier International Airport", "Quebec/Jean Lesage International Airport", "Saskatoon Diefenbaker International Airport", "Winnipeg Richardson International Airport", "Canada's Worst Natural Disasters of All Time", "Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Canada)", "Satellite imagery moves Hans Island boundary: report", "3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly", "The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada", "Canada warming up twice as fast as rest of the world, and it's 'irreversible': report", The Barren Lands Collection and Expedition maps, University of Toronto, The Barren Lands Collection, University of Toronto, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Geography_of_Canada&oldid=991880123, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 08:02. Immediately west of the Columbia Mountains is a large and rugged Interior Plateau, encompassing the Chilcotin and Cariboo regions in central British Columbia (the Fraser Plateau), the Nechako Plateau further north, and also the Thompson Plateau in the south. The first Europeans to reach the country were likely the Vikings and it is believed that Norse explorer Leif Eriksson led them to the coast of Labrador or Nova Scotia in 1000 CE. . European settlement did not begin in Canada until the 1500s. In 1713, a conflict developed between the English and French and the English won control of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay. The French began to settle there in 1541 but an official settlement was not established until 1604. Canada For Students 8th - Higher Ed Standards. , The westernmost point is Boundary Peak 187 (60°18′22.929″N 141°00′7.128″W) at the southern end of the Yukon–Alaska border, which roughly follows 141°W but leans very slightly east as it goes North 60°18′04″N 141°00′36″W / 60.301°N 141.010°W / 60.301; -141.010 (Boundary Peak 187). The Milk River originates in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, then flows into Alberta, then returns into the United States, where it is drained by the Missouri River. It joined Canada in 1870 followed by British Columbia in 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 1873. As the world’s second largest country, Canada’s geography changes significantly depending on which part you are in. By total area … Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. 13 U.S. states share a border with Canada: The Origins of British Columbia in Canada, Origins of the Saskatchewan Province of Canada, Canada's Population Estimates, Third Quarter 2018, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. Learn more about Canada’s beautiful and diverse landscape. Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive. Covering most of the northern part of the North American continent and with an area larger than that of the United States, Canada has an extremely varied topography. Canada claims 22 km (12 nmi) of territorial sea, a contiguous zone of 44 km (24 nmi), an exclusive economic zone of 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi) with 370 km (200 nmi) and a continental shelf of 370 km (200 nmi) or to the edge of the continental margin. The leader of Canada is called the Prime Minister. , The easternmost point is Cape Spear, Newfoundland (47°31′N 52°37′W) 47°31′23″N 52°37′08″W / 47.523°N 52.619°W / 47.523; -52.619 (Cape Spear, Newfoundland). The Canadian Shield, a hilly region of lakes and swamps, stretches across northern Canada and has some of the oldest rocks on Earth. According to Statistics Canada, 72.0 percent of the population is concentrated within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the nation's southern border with the United States, 70.0% live south of the 49th parallel, and over 60 percent of the population lives along the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River between Windsor, Ontario, and Quebec City. Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. It is the second largest country (by area) in the world.  The Shield mostly consists of eroded hilly terrain and contains many lakes and important rivers used for hydroelectric production, particularly in northern Quebec and Ontario. +1 (514) 937-9445 or Toll-free (Canada & US) +1 (888) 947-9445 | Home About Forum News Client Portal Contact Major elements are the Yukon, Columbia and Fraser rivers. If you're a geography buff, this quiz is for you!  Landlocked areas tend to have a warm summer continental climate zone with the exception of Southwestern Ontario which has a hot summer humid continental climate. Because of the long history of conflict between the English and French in Canada, a division between the two still exists in the country’s languages today. Ancient volcanoes play an important role in estimating Canada's mineral potential. It is the largest lake in the world that naturally drains in two directions. The Coast Mountains contain some of the largest temperate-latitude icefields in the world. The first is the executive, which consists of the head of state, who is represented by a governor general, and the prime minister, who is considered the head of government. That war ended in 1763 and England was given full control of Canada with the Treaty of Paris. Alberta also produces 75% of Canada’s oil and is important for coal and natural gas. Canada has over 2 million lakes covering 7% of the land mass. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. There are over 200 young volcanic centres that stretch northward from the Cascade Range to Yukon. Canada is the second largest country in the world by land area. Forestry has long been a major industry in Canada. In Quebec the official language at the provincial level is French and there have been several Francophone initiatives to ensure that the language remains prominent there. In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River while searching for fur and shortly thereafter, he claimed Canada for France.