Most of his early life was spent as a merchant. Author of. Most people in Mecca either ignored him or mocked him as just another prophet. All things considered, there is no compelling reason to suggest that the basic scaffolding of the traditional Islamic account of Muhammad’s life is unhistorical. He was also known for his brave public stance against the Vietnam War. Many (though not all) Muslims reject visual representations (e.g., images and sculpted figures) of religious figures, or even visual representations of living things, seeing it as a form of idolatry (worship of physical objects), which is inconsistent with their monotheism. He had four daughters and at least two sons (both of whom died as infants) with Khadījah and probably another son (who also died young) by a later wife or concubine, Māriyah. Rasulullah [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] was given Nubuwwat (prophethood) in this month. By now, Muhammad had plenty of forces and the balance of power had shifted away from the Meccan leaders to him. Muhammad’s conception is preceded by a dramatic crisis: his grandfather ʿAbd al … If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! By 630 he had unified most of Arabia under a single religion. Islamic tradition holds that the first persons to believe were his wife, Khadija and his close friend Abu Bakr (regarded as the successor to Muhammad by Sunni Muslims). “A kind word is a form of charity.” Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 18. His public preaching aroused opposition from other clans of his tribe. He was breast fed by Thuwaiba, the freed female slave of Abu Lahab. According to Islamic tradition, his father died before Muhammad was born, and his mother died when he was a young child. He accepted and over the years the happy union brought several children. Especially the customary chronological framework for Muhammad’s life appears to have been worked out by later transmitters and collectors such as Ibn Isḥāq, rather than being traceable to the earliest layer of Islamic traditions about Muhammad. Moreover, a number of rudimentary details about Muhammad are confirmed by non-Islamic sources dating from the first decades after Muhammad’s traditional date of death. What Do People Do? Total count up to 3000 days of birth of Sufi saints. According to the local calendar, it was Monday, 12 th Rabi-ul-Awwal, 571 (there are, however, some differences with the dates, although this date is widely accepted by most people) of the Christian Era (C.E. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 16. Twinkl » Middle East » UAE » Age 5-7 » Islamic Studies » Islamic Special Occasions He was born in Makkah. The Qurʾān provides very few concrete details regarding Muhammad’s life. Updates? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. However, when his message condemned idol worship and polytheism, many of Mecca’s tribal leaders began to see Muhammad and his message as a threat. It was then purchased by Muhammad bin YUsuf al-Thaqafi, the brother of the tyrannical Hajjaj bin Yusuf. For instance, a Syriac chronicle dating from about 640 mentions a battle between the Romans and “the Arabs of Muhammad,” and an Armenian history composed about 660 describes Muhammad as a merchant who preached to the Arabs and thereby triggered the Islamic conquests. Muslims around the world celebrate Mawlid (Muhammad's birth) in Rabi’ al … Muhammad stayed with his foster mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. Muhammad, the son of 'Abdullah ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim and his wife Aminah, was born in 570 CE, approximately, in the city of Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula.He was a member of the family of Banu Hashim, a respected branch of the prestigious and influential Quraysh tribe.It is generally said that 'Abd al-Muttalib named the child "Muhammad" (Arabic: مُحَمَّد ‎). Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini became the supreme religious leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, following many years of resistance to Shah Pahlavi. Born into a noble Quraish (Quraysh) clan, he was orphaned at an early age. Prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in the year 570 AD. A 1000 year old fire, which was being worshipped, was extinguished in Persia. Omissions? In time, Muhammad earned a reputation as honest and sincere, acquiring the nickname “al-Amin” meaning faithful or trustworthy. She soon became attracted to this young, accomplished man and proposed marriage. Recite for your lord is most generous….” These words became the opening verses of sūrah (chapter) 96 of the Qur'an. John Allen Muhammad became an infamous figure as part of a sniper team that terrorized the Washington, D.C., area for several weeks in October 2002. This event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. Muammar al-Qaddafi seized control of the Libyan government in 1969 and ruled as an authoritarian dictator for more than 40 years before he was overthrown in 2011. According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert, as desert life was considered healthier for infants. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) was born on a Monday, the 12th of Rabee Al-Awwal in the year of the Elephant. Born: c. 570 Mecca, Arabia Died: 632 Medina, Arabia Arabian prophet Muhammad was the founder of the religion of Islam and of a community at Medina that later developed into the Arab Empire. Muhammad was born around 570, AD in Mecca (now in Saudi Arabia). Muhammad was the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān, Islam’s sacred scripture. Muhammad was the prophet and founder of Islam. At age 40 he is said to have begun receiving revelations from the angel Gabriel. He (s) was chosen by God as a prophet at the age of forty. (Al Raheeq Al Maktum) The lake of Sawah, which was also worshiped, dried up at the Prophet’s birth. However, the text provides no dates for any of the historical events it alludes to, and almost none of the Qurʾānic messenger’s contemporaries are mentioned by name (a rare exception is at 33:37). He hailed from one of Mecca’s highly respected Banu Hashim clan. In the final major confrontation, The Battle of the Trench and Siege of Medina, Muhammad and his followers prevailed and a treaty was signed. In 610 he experienced a vision of the archangel Gabriel. Tradition holds that when Muhammad had his first vision, he fled from the cave in terror. Muhammad is traditionally said to have been born in 570 in Mecca and to have died in 632 in Medina, where he had been forced to emigrate to with his adherents in 622. In his early 20s, Muhammad began working for a wealthy merchant woman named Khadijah, 15 years his senior. Prophet Muhammad PBUH was born in Makkah, Saudi Arabia He was born in the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. For example, before Muhammad’s emigration to Medina he is said to have received an oath of allegiance by twelve inhabitants of the city, an obvious parallel to the Twelve Apostles, and during the digging of a defensive trench around Medina Muhammad is said to have miraculously sated all the workers from a handful of dates, recalling Jesus’ feeding of the multitude. The term Maulid is used in Egypt and Sudan to refer to the birthdays of Muhammad and local Sufi saints. There Muhammad was instrumental in bringing an end to a civil war raging amongst several of the city’s tribes. Each such report is normally introduced by a list of names tracing it through various intermediaries back to its ultimate source, which in many cases is an eyewitness—for example, the Prophet’s wife ʿĀʾishah. Muhammad was born around the year 570 CE to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe, one of Mecca’s prominent families. His father died before he was born and he was raised first by his grandfather and then his uncle. At age 40, he began to have revelations from Allah that became the basis for the Koran and the foundation of Islam. On one of his pilgrimages in 610, he was meditating in a cave on Mount Jabal aI-Nour. For example, some of the non-Islamic sources present Muhammad as having still been alive when the Arab conquerors invaded Palestine (634–640), in contrast to the Islamic view that the Prophet had already passed away at this point. Biography according to the Islamic tradition. Certain tensions with the Islamic narrative of the Prophet’s life remain, however. His birthplace is near to Kaaba, which is later converted into a library by the Saudi Government. In his early teens, Muhammad worked in a camel caravan, following in the footsteps of many people his age, born of meager wealth. Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد‎, pronounced [muħammad]; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. Many of the tribes living in the Arabian Peninsula at the time were nomadic, trading goods as they crisscrossed the desert. ). Muhammad the Master of Prophets, was born in Bani Hashim lane in Makkah on Monday morning, the ninth of Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, the same year of the Elephant Event, and forty years of the reign of Kisra (Khosru Nushirwan), i.e. Abu al-Qasim Muhammad Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Abd al-Muttalib Ibn Hashim also known as Prophet Muhammad, was born around the year 570 in the city of Mecca and is hailed as the last prophet of Islam. 5. A voice said to her, “The child you bear is the best of all humankind, and he will be a leader of his people. He is usually said to have had 14 wives or concubines during his lifetime. The most famous site was the Kaaba (meaning cube in Arabic). Muhammad and his followers then proceeded to destroy all of the statues of pagan gods in and around the Kaaba. His noble face first shone upon the world on the morning of Monday, 12th of Rabi’ Al-Awwal in the Year of the Elephant. The town of Mecca was an important trading and religious center, home to many temples and worship sites where the devoted prayed to the idols of these gods. This is not to suggest that there was necessarily an element of deliberate fabrication at work, at least at the level of a compiler like Ibn Isḥāq, who was clearly not inventing stories from scratch. Moreover, some of the narratives in question are patently adaptations of biblical motifs designed to present Muhammad as equal or superior to earlier prophetic figures such as Moses and Jesus. For instance, unlike many earlier Western accounts, no attempt will be made to remove supernatural elements from the narrative in the interest of transforming it into an account that appears plausible by modern historiographical standards. This expression contains a key word “lead” which means “to show the way”. After his clan withdrew its protection, he fled to Medina in 622 and repulsed two attacks by Meccan forces in 625 and 627. However, this work is extant only in later reworkings and abridgements, of which the best known is ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Hishām’s (died 833–834) Sīrat Muḥammad rasūl Allāh (“Life of Muhammad, the Messenger of God”). He led the Farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca, the precedent for the hajj, in 632, the year of his death. In 622 he established the nascent Muslim community in Medina. “A father gives nothing better than good education.” Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 19. Our Prophet Muhammad ﷺ is Born. They deduced from their books that the Messenger of God would come. As of 2015, there are over 1.8 billion Muslims in the world who profess, “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.”. 2. Most such information thus comes from the sīrah (“biography”) literature, consisting of accounts of his life by various writers dating mainly from the 8th and 9th centuries. Elijah Muhammad rose from poverty to become the charismatic leader of the black nationalist group Nation of Islam, and mentor of Malcolm X and Louis Farrakhan. Although the Prophet (s) was born in the polytheistic society of Arabia, he never worshiped any idols, and avoided the inappropriate manners that were rampant in pre-Islamic Arabia. This year was called by this name as it was the year in which the well-known event of the elephants of Yemen occurred. The following section will nonetheless provide a concise digest mainly of Ibn Isḥāq’s version of the life of the Prophet. It was the day the best person ever was born. Muhammad is the last prophet who was born in Mecca. This was especially true for members of Muhammad’s own tribe, the Quraysh, who were the guardians of the Kaaba. Muhammad was born around 570, AD in Mecca (now in Saudi Arabia). He concluded a truce with Mecca in 628 but later forced it to submit. He belonged to a poor but respectable family of the Quraysh tribe. Besides going against long standing beliefs, the condemnation of idol worship had economic consequences for merchants who catered to the thousands of pilgrims who came to Mecca every year. Upon his return to Medina to his wife’s home, he fell ill for several days. The Leadership of Muhammad is a new book by British management scholar John Adair that mines the life of the Prophet Muhammad to highlight his extraordinary qualities as a leader. Muhammad was also very religious, occasionally taking journeys of devotion to sacred sites near Mecca. Muhammad, in full Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, (born c. 570, Mecca, Arabia [now in Saudi Arabia]—died June 8, 632, Medina), the founder of Islam and the proclaimer of the Qurʾān. Rabee Al-Awwal is the third month of the Islamic calendar. Not all lived to adulthood, but one, Fatima, would marry Muhammad’s cousin, Ali ibn Abi Talib, whom Shi’ite Muslims regard as Muhammad’s successor. He belonged to a … The principle of aniconism (opposition to the use of icons or religious idols) was an early feature of Islam, though under some historical dynasties or in some regions the prohibition was only partially or selectively enforced—e.g., under the ʿAbbāsid dynasty (750–1258) it applied only to public buildings. Most of the biographical information that the Islamic tradition preserves about Muhammad thus occurs outside the Qurʾān, in the so-called sīrah (Arabic: “biography”) literature. Muhammad was born about AD 570 in the city of Mecca, an important trading center in western Arabia. Most tribes were polytheistic, worshipping their own set of gods. In the order of birth sequence, the children of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) are as follows: It is in this Blessed Month that our dear Prophet-Prophet Muhammad SAW was born. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? His father died before he was born and he was raised first by his grandfather and then his uncle. Muhammad settled in Medina, building his Muslim community and gradually gathering acceptance and more followers. He was born in Makkah, the famed town of the Arabian Peninsula. In 630, the Muslim army marched into Mecca, taking the city with minimum casualties. Among other significant events that occured during this blessed month of Rabi-ul-Awwal is: 1. Arguably the single most important work in the genre is Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq’s (died 767–768) Kitāb al-maghāzī (“Book of [the Prophet’s] Military Expeditions”). Ibn Isḥāq’s original book was not his own composition but rather a compilation of autonomous reports about specific events that took place during the life of Muhammad and also prior to it, which Ibn Isḥāq arranged into what he deemed to be their correct chronological order and to which he added his own comments. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Finally, it is distinctly possible that some reports about events in Muhammad’s life emerged not from historical memory but from exegetical speculation about the historical context of particular verses of the Qurʾān. Many miracles happened at his birth. Other passages mention military encounters between Muhammad’s followers and the unbelievers. We strive for accuracy and fairness. Since his father died before his birth and his mother died shortly thereafter, he was raised by his uncle who was from the respected tribe of Quraysh. Muhammad gave amnesty to many of the Meccan leaders who had opposed him and pardoned many others. Salman Rushdie is a British-Indian novelist best known for the novels 'Midnight's Children' and 'The Satanic Verses,' for which he was accused of blasphemy against Islam. In 610, in … Muslim statesman Muhammad Ali Jinnah led Pakistan’s independence from British-controlled India and was its first governor-general and president of its constituent assembly. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. After the conflict with Mecca was finally settled, Muhammad took his first true Islamic pilgrimage to that city and in March, 632, he delivered his last sermon at Mount Arafat. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. After 50 or 55 days of the amazing story of the elephant, on Monday morning in the month of Rabī Al-Awwal, our Prophet Muhammad (ṣallāllāhu ʿalayhī wa-sallam) was born. When he is born, give him the name of Muhammad, which means ‘Highly Praised’.” This voice said that her baby’s name is Ahmad in the Torah and in the Gospels, but in the Qu’ran his name will be Muhammad. Thus, statements of the sort that on March 21 of the year 625, Meccan forces entered the oasis of Medina are inherently problematic. During the birth of the Prophet Muhammad, the following miraculous events occurred: A star was born at the night he was born. These are sometimes linked with place-names, such as the passing reference to a victory at a place called Badr at 3:123. Although founded by Abraham, worship there has over time become dominated by polytheism and idolatry. According to Islamic tradition, the Qurʾān, understood as a literal transcription of the speech of God (Allah), was revealed to Muhammad in stages by the archangel Gabriel, beginning in 610. Working for his uncle, he gained experience in commercial trade traveling to Syria and eventually from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Nonetheless, some accretion of popular legend around a figure as seminal as Muhammad would be entirely expected. He spent his entire life in what is now the country of Saudi Arabia, from his birth about 570 CE in Mecca to his death in 632 in Medina. Some people consider Prophet Muhammad’s Birthday a worthy event, which requires praise. Top Leadership Qualities of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Who is a leader? Born in Mecca about 570 CE, Muhammad married a wealthy widow, Khadījah, in 595. His father, Abdullah, died almost six months before Muhammad was born. “The believer does not slander, curse, or speak in an obscene or foul manner.” Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 17. The family was active in Meccan politics and trade. By carefully comparing accounts, scholars have identified common elements that were in circulation by the late 7th century, and some rudimentary details are confirmed by non-Islamic sources (e.g., a Syriac chronicle and an Armenian history) dating to the first few decades after his traditional death date. Because Muhammad's father, Abd Allah, died before he was born and his mother, Amina, when he was 6 years old, he was placed in… He died on June 8, 632, at the age of 62, and was buried at al-Masjid an-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) one of the first mosques built by Muhammad in Medina. He was a member of the Hashim clan of the powerful Quraysh tribe. Muhammad, Prophet of Islam and proclaimer of the Qur’an. This digest does not aim to separate historical fact from later legend. Many Muslims believe that Muhammad is the only individual to have seen both Heaven and Hell while still living. He was born in Mecca as a member of the ruling Hashim clan of the tribe of Quraysh. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had three sons and four daughters. However, Shi’a tradition states he welcomed the message from the Angel Gabriel and was deeply inspired to share his experience with other potential believers. https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/muhammad. The Hijrah was possibly one of the greatest and most significant events in Islamic history, both literally and for every thing it stood for. At the same time, the nature of the sources is not such as to inspire confidence that we possess historically certain knowledge about the Prophet’s life that is as detailed as many earlier scholars tended to assume. All of his children were born to Hz Khadijah bint Khuwaylid (RA) except one son (Ibrahim), who was born to Hz Maria al-Qibtiyah (RA).. This is why this property is recorded by many early books as being the property of Muhammad bin Yusuf. Hence, even if one accepts that the Qurʾānic corpus authentically documents the preaching of Muhammad, taken by itself it simply does not provide sufficient information for even a concise biographical sketch. Osama bin Laden is a terrorist extremist who planned the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and is intent on driving Western influence from the Muslim world. Most of the Meccan population converted to Islam. The Qurʾān yields little concrete biographical information about the Islamic Prophet: it addresses an individual “messenger of God,” whom a number of verses call Muhammad (e.g., 3:144), and speaks of a pilgrimage sanctuary that is associated with the “valley of Mecca” and the Kaʿbah (e.g., 2:124–129, 5:97, 48:24–25). The fact that such biographical narratives about Muhammad are encountered only in texts dating from the 8th or 9th century or even later is bound to raise the problem of how confident one can be in the sīrah literature’s claim to relay accurate historical information. An important collector of such early traditions was ʿUrwah ibn al-Zubayr, a relative of ʿĀʾishah who was probably born in 643–644 and who is plausibly viewed as having had firsthand access to former companions of the Prophet. “Muhammad (Peace be upon him), the Master of Prophets, was born in Bani Hashim lane in Makkah on Monday morning, the ninth of Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, the same year of the Elephant Event, and forty years of the reign of Kisra (Khosru Nushirwan), i.e. By carefully comparing alternative versions of one and the same biographical narrative, scholars have been able to show that a certain number of traditions about Muhammad’s life—for instance, an account of the Prophet’s emigration from Mecca to Medina—were in circulation already by the end of the 7th century. At least to historians who are reluctant to admit reports of divine intervention, the problem is reinforced by the miraculous elements of some of the material included in Ibn Isḥāq’s work. Who Is the Prophet Muhammad ? Soon, Muhammad began to gather a small following, initially encountering no opposition. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Prophet Muhammed (peace be upon him), the chosen one, was born in Mecca. He freed her upon her bringing him the good news of the Prophet’s birth. Over fourteen hundred years ago, the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was born to `Abdullah and Amina. It is believed to have been built by Abraham (Ibrahim to Muslims) and his son Ismail. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. They were expert in making conclusions from the movements of stars. Muslim-American Olympic fencer Ibtihaj Muhammad will become Barbie's first doll wearing a hijab as part of Mattel's Shero collection. Gradually the people of Mecca turned to polytheism and idolatry. The Prophet ﷺ was born in Makkah in close proximity to the Kaabah. His hometown of Mecca houses an ancient and famous pilgrimage sanctuary, the Kaʿbah. Muhammad Ali was a heavyweight boxing champion with an impressive 56-win record. “I think its revolutionary for Barbie to take a stand in this moment that we’re in," Muhammad told People magazine. Muhammad is born as a member of the tribe of Quraysh and the clan of Hāshim. At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological m… Born in Mecca of humble origins, Muhammad married a wealthy widow at 25 years old and lived the next 15 years as an unremarkable merchant. Sensing a threat, Mecca’s merchants and leaders offered Muhammad incentives to abandon his preaching, but he refused. Saudi where was prophet muhammad born ) in and around the Kaaba the property of Muhammad and his mother died when was... Proclaimer of the statues of pagan gods in and around the Kaaba a war! Muhammad Ali was a young child digest does not aim to separate historical fact later... 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