HERODOTUS’ HOMER: TROY, THERMOPYLAE, AND THE DORIANS Peter Gainsford In: C. Matthew and M. Trundle (eds. 2013) For Greeks who were alive at the time of Thermopylae in 480 BCE, the Trojan War had held a central place since time immemorial as the greatest war of legend. The next day brings continued success for the Spartans; the pass is held (212). Herodotus, Book 7” explains the battle of Thermopylae. [7.205] Having two older brothers, Cleomenes and Dorieus, he had no thought of ever becoming king. Ernle Bradford brings ancient battles to life through his extensive military experience. Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who lived in the 5 th century BCE. Probably about the time of that battle, Cleombrotus was at the Isthmus, constructing the defences there (Hdt. This battle was recorded many historians, including Herodotus and Diodorus, and is even being continued to be written about… 601 Words 1 Page . [7.209] Hearing this Xerxes was not able to conjecture the truth about the matter, namely that they were preparing themselves to die and to deal death to the enemy so far as they might; but it seemed to him that they were acting in a manner merely ridiculous; and therefore he sent for [former Spartan king] Demaratus, the son of Ariston, who was in his camp, and when he came, Xerxes asked him of these things severally, desiring to discover what this was which the Spartans were doing: and he said: "Thou didst hear from my mouth at a former time, when we were setting forth to go against Greece, the things concerning these men; and having heard them thou madest me an object of laughter, because I told thee of these things which I perceived would come to pass; for to me it is the greatest of all ends to speak the truth continually before thee, O king. Using the URL or DOI link below will ensure access to this page indefinitely . The barbarians with Xerxes were accordingly advancing to the attack; and the Greeks with Leonidas, feeling that they were going forth to death, now advanced out much further than at first into the broader part of the defile; for when the fence of the wall was being guarded, they on the former days fought retiring before the enemy into the narrow part of the pass; but now they engaged with them outside the narrows, and very many of the barbarians fell: for behind them the leaders of the divisions with scourges in their hands were striking each man, ever urging them on to the front. Since however Cleomenes had died without male child, and Dorieus was then no longer alive, but he also had brought his life to an end in Sicily, thus the kingdom came to Leonidas, both because was of elder birth than Cleombrotus (for Cleombrotus was the youngest of the sons of Anaxandrides) and also because he had in marriage the daughter of Cleomenes. [7.207] These had intended to do thus, and meanwhile the Greeks at Thermopylae, when the Persian had come near to the pass, were in dread, and deliberated about making retreat from their position. Herodotus – Battle of Thermopylae (adapted from a translation by George Rawlinson, 1861) Leonidas had come to be king of Sparta quite unexpectedly. battle of Thermopylae, Xerxes reviews his forces, summon Demaratuss , the exiled Spartan king, and asks him if the Greeks will figh st o large a force. Add Paper to My Library. Open PDF in Browser. (In print Mar. Using Thyrea as an interpretive guide to Thermopylae will not only help illuminate this reconfiguring of the more famous battle, it will also Herodotus' Homer: Troy, Thermopylae, and the Dorians. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. These signified it to them while it was yet night, and thirdly came the day-watchers, who had run down from the heights when day was already dawning. Herodotus was an illustrious Greek historian. Xerxes sends the Medes into the pass on the fifth day, and many of them are killed (210). So the Persians, finding nothing different from that which they had seen on the former day, retired back from the fight. The coin features a Greek helmet to remember the battle between Greeks and Persians fought in the summer of 480 BC at the narrow coastal pass of Thermopylae. 3. © 1976 The Classical Association Herodotus highlights the alliance of the Greek city-states during the Persian Wars, also discussing the disunity and betrayal amongst the … This reputation was a key part of Spartan success throughout the 5th century (Konijnendijk 2019). JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. They accordingly, hearing this, came to the assistance of the others at Trachis. Copy URL. The battle of Thermopylae is a significant battle. Afterwards, however, when they had kept the festival (for the festival of the Carneia stood in their way), they intended then to leave a garrison in Sparta and to come to help in full force with speed: and just so also the rest of the allies had thought of doing themselves; for it chanced that the Olympic festival fell at the same time as these events. The Phocians however, when they were hit by the arrows of the enemy, which flew thickly, fled and got away at once to the topmost peak of the mountain, fully assured that it was against them that the enemy had designed to come, and here they were ready to meet death. [7.230] Some say that Aristodemus came safe to Sparta in this manner, and on a pretext such as I have said; but others, that he had been sent as a messenger from the camp, and when he might have come up in time to find the battle going on, was not willing to do so, but stayed upon the road and so saved his life, while his fellow-messenger reached the battle and was slain. "Herodotus' twenty-second logos: Thermopylae". In the battle of Thermopylae Xerxes’ expedition was directed against Athens, but was really to conquer all of Greece. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. On 31 March Greece has issued a 2 euro circulation coin dedicated to the Battle of Thermopylae 2,500 years ago. [7.205] Having two older brothers, Cleomenes and Dorieus, he had no thought of ever becoming king. At the battle of Thermopylae (480 BC), an allied Greek force attempted to stall a Persian invasion into Central Greece. Many of them then were driven into the sea and perished, and many more still were trodden down while yet alive by one another, and there was no reckoning of the number that perished: for knowing the death which was about to come upon them by reason of those who were going round the mountain, they displayed upon the barbarians all the strength which they had, to its greatest extent, disregarding danger and acting as if possessed by a spirit of recklessness. This place is called Thermopylae by most of the Hellenes, but by the natives and their neighbors Pylae. Histories, that of the battle of Thermopylae is surely one of the most famous and most moving. HERODOTUS’ HOMER: TROY, THERMOPYLAE, AND THE DORIANS Peter Gainsford In: C. Matthew and M. Trundle (eds. This combat went on throughout the day. Remembering the Battle of Thermopylae. View Battle of Thermopylae Student Materials_1.pdf from HISTORY 101 at University of the Philippines Diliman. King Xerxes lay encamped in Trachis in Malis and the Hellenes in the pass. After this engagement, the Greek navy at Artemisium received news of the defeat at Thermopylae. Rupert Matthews, The Battle of Thermopylae: A Campaign in Context (Spellmount Limited Publishers: Gloucestershire, 2006). Herodotus Excerpts from Book VII of The Histories Translated and Edited by A.D. Godley, 1921-24 CCI. True it is indeed that Onetes might know of this path, even though he were not a Malian, if he had had much intercourse with the country; but Ephialtes it was who led them round the mountain by the path, and him therefore I write down as the guilty man. The Classical Quarterly has a reputation for publishing the highest quality classical scholarship for nearly 100 years. He was a young boy during the Persian War, and interviewed Greek veterans of the Persian War to get the information … All Rights Reserved. This gives Cavaignac dates of 16–18 October for the battle of Thermopylae and 26 October for the battle of Salamis, with the Olympia culminating on 17 September. Cambridge University Press is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible across the globe. Add Paper to My Library. After more than 2,000 years, the Battle of Thermopylae remains widely depicted and revered in Western culture as the ultimate symbol of heroic perseverance against seemingly insurmountable odds. Many of these journals are the leading academic publications in their fields and together they form one of the most valuable and comprehensive bodies of research available today. After this they departed from their assembly, and some went away and dispersed each to their several cities, while others of them were ready to remain there together with Leonidas. Beyond the Gates of Fire: New Perspectives on the Battle of Thermopylae. The main source for the battle of 480 is Herodotus, Histories, 7.201-233, which is offered here in the translation by G.C. Ephorus. Of these the Thebans stayed against their will and not because they desired it, for Leonidas kept them, counting them as hostages; but the Thespians very willingly, for they said that they would not depart and leave Leonidas and those with him, but they stayed behind and died with them. The question now is what makes Herodotus a reliable source and are the researchers that are citing him limited to his findings or, are they expanding on them. Thucydides ... EDSITEment Lesson Plan: 300 Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae: Herodotus' Real History (from the National Endowment for the Humanities) Lendering, Jona (1996–2007). When his sacrifice was answered by … paradox interactive forums thermopylae wikipedia herodotus lgs greek project patent pending blog patents and history of technology: ancient inventions technologies For more information, visit http://journals.cambridge.org. Only King Leonidas, his 300 Spartans, and 700 Thespians remained to resist the Persians while the rest of the Greek army could retreat. He then at this time went to Thermopylae, having chosen the three hundred who were appointed by law and men who chanced to have sons; and he took with him besides, before he arrived, those Thebans whom I mentioned when I reckoned them in the number of the troops, of whom the commander was Leontiades the son of Eurymachus. The Battle of Thermopylae The Battle of Thermopylae took place in Thermopylae, a mountain pass near the sea, in northern Greece in late August 480 BC. 2 Thermopylae: Herodotus versus the Legend Hans van Wees 3 A Narratological Comparison of Herodotus and Diodorus on Thermopylae Mathieu de Bakker 4 Narrative and Identity in Thermopylae (Herodotus 7.201–7.239) Antonis Tsakmakis 5 Herodotus’ Handling of (Narratological) Time in the Thermopylae Passage Irene J.F. This source was important to my project because it helped explain why this battle was so important, because a little amount of Greeks killed a lot of Persian men and held the Persian attack for days. [7.215] Xerxes accordingly, being pleased by that which Ephialtes engaged to accomplish, at once with great joy proceeded to send Hydarnes and the men of whom Hydarnes was commander; and they set forth from the camp about the time when the lamps are lit. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. 10. This book is highly recommended for general audiences interested in the true version of the Battle of Thermopylae and Leonidas' 300 Spartans. the all powerful Persian Kingdom that extended up to the coastline of Asia Minor, began its attempts to expand towards the West, to the lands mainly of Greece. The pass at Thermopylae was thus opened to the Persian army according to Herodotus, at the cost to the Persians of up to 20,000 fatalities. [7.222] The allies then who were dismissed departed and went away, obeying the word of Leonidas, and only the Thespians and the Thebans remained behind with the Spartans. HERODOTUS AND THE DATING OF THE BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE* I. The anopaia path at thermopylai was leonidas a good general ? Although scholars have hardly ever thought of Herodotus as a great military historian, he has managed nonetheless to infuse many of his battle narratives with a profound sense of excitement and pathos simul-taneously. [7.206] These with Leonidas the Spartans had sent out first, in order that seeing them, the other allies might join in the campaign, and for fear that they would side with the Medes if they heard that the Spartans were putting off their action. Afterwards from fear of the Spartans he fled to Thessaly, and when he had fled, a price was proclaimed for his life by the Deputies, when the Amphictyons met for their assembly at Pylai. 367 however speciously, when challenging Herodotus. Using the URL or DOI link below will ensure access to this page indefinitely . Thus they contended then. Now this Athenades killed Ephialtes for another cause, which I shall set forth in the following part of the history, but he was honored for it none the less by the Spartans. The Battle of Thermopylae took place at the end of August/beginning of September in 480 BCE 2. [7.203] In addition to these, the Locrians of Opus had been summoned to come in their full force, and of the Phocians a thousand: for the Greeks had of themselves sent a summons to them, saying by messengers that they had come as forerunners of the others, that the rest of the allies were to be expected every day, that their sea was safely guarded, being watched by the Athenians and the Aeginetans and by those who had been appointed to serve in the fleet, and that they need fear nothing: for it was not a god, they said, who was coming to attack Greece, but a man; and there was no mortal, nor would be any, with those fortunes evil had not been mingled at his very birth, and the greatest evils for the greatest men; therefore he also who was marching against them, being mortal, would be destined to fail of his expectation. This helped me better understand the battle of Thermopylae because it showed about how many Persian men fought. 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