In the reign of Yazdgird, the son of Šabuhr made it during the invasion of the Čōl, at the boundary of the Gruzinian Guard.)". In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. 'Gate of Iron'). Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. [45] The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela mentions Jews living in Derbent in the 12th century, and Christian traveler Wilhelm of Rubruquis writes about a Jewish community in the 13th century. The 21st Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. The Soviet novelist Yury Krymov named a fictional motor tanker after the city in his book The Tanker "Derbent". According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name. In 2002, there were 2,000 Jews with an active synagogue and community center. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. There was also a second Armenian church, and two Armenian schools which served the Armenian community, which numbered about 3,000 in the census of 1913. Dagestan was always divided into numerous historical and geographical areas: Avaria, Agul, Akusha-Dargo, Andia, Auch, Dido, Kaitag, Kumykia, Lakia, Lekiya, Salataviya, Rutulia, Tabasaran and others. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. It is also the southernmost city in Russia, and the second-most important city of Dagestan. (. ... Derbent. The fortress was built under direction of the Sassanid emperor Khosrow (Chosroes) I.[23]. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. Jews began to settle in Derbent in ancient times. Derbent experienced a period of considerable prosperity in the first three centuries of the Common Era, but the resumption of nomad raids in the 4th century (the Alans and later the Huns) meant that it quickly reverted to its role as a frontier post and a "symbolic boundary between nomadic and agrarian ways of life". Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twin long walls connecting it with the Caspian Sea in the east, and the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, running from Derbent to the Caucasus foothills in the west. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.[12]. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. Peter I conquered Derbent during the Persian campaign, but later it went to Persia again, and finally joined the Russian Empire only in 1813. Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. [26] In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, and ʿAbbās the Great. History of Derbent and the millennia old historical and cultural relations it has with Iran. [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. His successor,[citation needed] Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. To the north of the town is the monument of the Kirk-lar, or forty heroes, who fell defending Dagestan against the Arabs in 728. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. This settlement initially covered only the more protected northeastern side of the hill (some 4–5 hectares), but over the 6th–4th centuries BCE expanded to cover its entire surface (c. 15 hectares). [1] Archaeological evidence points to the establishment of a fortified settlement on the Derbent hill as early as the late 8th century BCE, probably under the impact of Scythian raids. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. Дагестан. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. The Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.[41]. After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). [30][31] The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. The abode of the Parthians was there. māniš [ī] *pārsīgān ānōh būd. During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. Derbent Travel Guide; All Derbent Hotels; Derbent Hotel Deals; Last Minute Hotels in Derbent; By Hotel Type. The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrasa. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. Out of the window next to the reception desk (3rd floor) you have a great view of the castle. Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twi… The fortification complex was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند‎; Lezgian: Кьвевар, Цал; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend,[8] is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute. During the reign of Khosrow I the fortress was built. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent, Russia, or with the Pass of Dariel, a gorge forming a pass between Russia and Georgia with the Caspian Sea to the east. After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls. The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. Derbent's Jewry suffered during the wars in the 18th century. Naryn-Kala fortress in Derbent [15], "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;..."[16], In Arabic texts the city was known as "Bāb al-Abwāb" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْأَبْوَاب‎, lit. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. [25] The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." This is a must-visit for understanding the A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers still remain in reasonable shape. Think Again, Moscow Says, People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan, Derbent - Russia's oldest city: 5,000 and counting.
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