Learn about the following insulation materials: Fiberglass (or fiber glass)--which consists of extremely fine glass fibers--is one of the most ubiquitous insulation materials. The strain insulator is similar to the suspension insulator type. As a result of its recycled content, this product uses minimal energy to manufacture. In many cases, it is best to install insulation before a wall is completed, but even if this is not done, there are types of insulation that can help. We illustrate and include photographs of insulation materials that would not be expected to contain asbestos as well as asbestos-containing materials. Some materials possess the properties of both conductors and insulators, such as silicone and germanium. Insulation further prevents current from contact with other conductors, resists electrical leakage and offers protection from all environmental conditions. Other polystyrene insulation materials similar to MEPS are expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS). It provides more flexibility to the overhead line. Insulators are classified into six different major types. Thus, there are two types of post insulators: (i) Station post insulators and (ii) Line post insulators. It is mostly used in the overhead transmission system or line. The pin types of insulators are mostly used in the distribution system. Like a suspension insulator, a strain insulator can be used in the overhead transmission line. Bulky materials resist conductive and -- to a lesser degree -- convective heat flow in a building cavity. Insulation materials run the gamut from bulky fiber materials such as fiberglass, rock and slag wool, cellulose, and natural fibers to rigid foam boards to sleek foils. ft. attic at R-30. All closed-cell polyurethane foam insulation made today is produced with a non-HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) gas as the foaming agent. Note to Editors. Radiant Barriers. Vermiculite insulation materials aren't widely used today because they sometimes contain asbestos. All of these materials are produced using recycled waste materials. Foam board or liquid foam can be used to manufacture a SIP. Bulky materials resist conductive and -- to a lesser degree -- convective heat flow in a building cavity. Aluminum foil can also act as a radiant barrier. My pleasure to share with DipsLab readers. These foams are similar to conventional polyurethane foams, but are more flexible. If you compare insulator and conductor, both have the opposite properties. One major disadvantage of phenolic foam is that it can shrink up to 2% after curing, which makes it less popular today. The stay insulator known as the Egg Insulator because it looks like an oval or rectangular shape. List of insulation materials. The boards also make effective sound-absorbing panels for interior partitions. Some natural fibers--including cotton, sheep's wool, straw, and hemp--are used as insulation materials. This creates a type of loose-fill insulation made of pellets that can be poured into place or mixed with cement to create a lightweight, less heat-conductive concrete. per cubic foot. Reflective foil, if installed correctly and facing an open air space, can also act as a radiant barrier. Inorganic substances like metals and plasmas that readily lose and gain electrons top the list of conductors. It has many electrical components such as conductor, tower (electrical pole), insulator…. It doesn't require additional chemicals to make it fire resistant, and it is commonly available as blanket (batts and rolls) and loose-fill insulation. Good information about insulators. These six types of insulators are selected on the bases of voltage rating. Let’s talk about Electrical Machine and insulators. It's commonly used in two different types of insulation: blanket (batts and rolls) and loose-fill and is also available as rigid boards and duct insulation. Polystyrene loose-fill or bead insulation typically has a lower R-value compared to the foam board. Fiberglass loose-fill insulation is made from molten glass that is spun or blown into fibers. In the electrical system, the specific insulating materials used like porcelain, glass, steatite, polymer, ceramic, PVC. Slow expanding foam is also available, which is intended for cavities in existing homes. Whether you need attic insulation, crawl space insulation or office building wall insulation, there is a material that works for your project. It requires less maintenance as compared to other insulator types. These panels, although more expensive, are more fire and water vapor-diffusion resistant than EPS. Insulators used for high-voltage power transmission are made from glass, porcelain or composite polymer materials. Basically, an insulator protects devices from overload. Common insulation materials are wool, fiberglass, rock wool, polystyrene, polyurethane, and goose feather etc. Post insulators are similar to Pin insulators, but post insulators … Cellulose insulation typically requires no moisture barrier and, when installed at proper densities, cannot settle in a building cavity. Cellulose is primarily made from recycled newsprint. These beads can be used as a pouring insulation for concrete blocks or other hollow wall cavities, but they are extremely lightweight, take a static electric charge very easily, and are notoriously difficult to control. Thanks, Sreenath for reaching out to my blog. Most thermal drift occurs within the first two years after the insulation material is manufactured, after which the R-value remains unchanged unless the foam is damaged. Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. One product uses recycled blue jean manufacturing trim waste. INSULATION TYPE: Blanket Batts and Rolls. It is commonly used to insulate the live parts of equipment or conductor from the earth. Reflective foil, if installed correctly and facing an open air space, can also act as a radiant barrier. For more comfortable installation with less itch and dust, look for encapsulated roll insulation or batting wrapped in plastic. This number is determined by the type of insulation, its thickness, density, and where and how the insulation … Wall panels made of polyisocyanurate are typically 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick. These materials are very poor conductors of heat and are therefore good thermal insulators. The live conductor is protected by wrapping the insulation. If you want to add insulation to your attic, use an insulation contractor who is trained and certified in handling asbestos. Types of Insulation The chart contains information on common types of insulation, as well as tips on where and how to use them. If you look outside, you can see the electrical overhead system which is used for the transmission and distribution of electricity. Consumers can choose from among many types of insulation that save money and improve comfort. All Rights Reserved. Testing suggests that the stabilized R-value of rigid foam with metal foil facings remains unchanged after 10 years. They are broadly classified into three types of electrical insulation based on their operating voltage levels and applications. It provides good air sealing and is fire resistant and won't sustain a flame. measurement of a material's capacity to resist heat flow from one side Polyisocyanurate insulation is available as a liquid, sprayed foam, and rigid foam board. … A post insulator is more or less similar to a pin insulator. The table below compares the… Insulators made from porcelain rich in alumina are used where high mechanical strength is a … The newer BIBS HP is an economical hybrid system that combines BIBS with spray polyurethane foam. High-density fiberglass batts for a 2 by 4 inch (51 by 102 millimeter [mm]) stud-framed wall has an R-15 value, compared to R-11 for "low density" types. The electrical insulator is a device that provides the required insulation between the line conductor and earth. Post insulators are commonly used in the substation or generating substation. Loose-fill insulation must be applied using an insulation-blowing machine in either open-blow applications (such as attic spaces) or closed-cavity applications (such as those found inside existing walls or covered attic floors). The voltage operating capacity of the insulator is from 11 kV to 765 kV. EPS is commonly produced in blocks. In a substation, it is suitable for different voltage levels (from a higher to lower voltage). Cellulose insulation is made from recycled paper products, primarily newsprint, and has a very high recycled material content, generally 82% to 85%. But, in electrical power systems, the insulators with porcelain material are the best and used in transmission & distribution system. Facings are fastened to insulation materials during the manufacturing process. Spray Foam Insulation. The strain insulator is similar to the suspension insulator type. UF foam contains no fire retardant. Pin type Insulator. A single piece of pin insulator is used in 11kV, and the double piece is applied to 25kV. Rigid foam boards trap air or another gas to resist heat flow. Phenolic foamed-in-place insulation uses air as the foaming agent. The specially designed AttiCat machine conditions the insulation by adding millions of tiny air pockets that give the material its insulating power and energy-saving R-value over time. But, it has slightly different specifications and working roles. Only a few sources of vermiculite have been found to contain more than tiny trace amounts. Thanks, for sharing the important information. Because it provides high resistance. Sharing my knowledge on this blog makes me happy. It can also be made into laminated insulation panels with a variety of facings. Organic molecules are mostly insulators because they're held together by covalent (shared electron) bonds and because hydrogen bonding helps stabilize many molecules. Some manufacturers use polyisocyanurate as the insulating material in structural insulated panels (SIPs). The suspension insulator is called as Disc Insulator. With closed-cell foam, the high-density cells are closed and filled with a gas that helps the foam expand to fill the spaces around it. Stay insulator is used only in the distributions line. It is made of shredded paper plus a fire retardant chemical known as a borate. These insulators are poor conductors of heat, which is why they effectively form protection. Urea-formaldehyde (UF) foam was used in homes during the 1970s and early 1980s. It must be added, thermal insulation is primarily based on the very low thermal conductivity of gases. Ceiling boards and thermos designs are good examples of heat insulators. This type of insulator is used in the high voltage overhead distribution line. Mostly, suspension insulator is made of glass or porcelain insulating materials. The most common types of materials used for loose-fill insulation include cellulose, fiberglass, and mineral (rock or slag) wool. Over time, the R-value of XPS insulation can drop as some of the low-conductivity gas escapes and air replaces it--a phenomenon is known as thermal drift or ageing. It can also be made into laminated insulation panels with a variety of facings. @ 2021 – DipsLab.com. The paper is first reduced to small pieces and then fiberized, creating a product that packs tightly into building cavities and inhibits airflow. Polyurethane is a foam insulation material that contains a low-conductivity gas in its cells. Some types of facing can also act as an air barrier, radiant barrier, and/or vapor barrier and some even provide flame resistance. In a transmission line, why suspension insulator is better than others? In the circular turn or bend position, a shackle insulator can work. A pin insulator is best for supporting low voltage line conductors. Low-density, open-cell polyurethane foams use air as the blowing agent and have an R-value that doesn't change over time. From the material used to how it is installed, building insulation is remarkably diverse. Polyurethane insulation is available as a liquid sprayed foam and rigid foam board. The symbolic representation of the insulator: Moreover, the insulating material plays an important role in the making of various electrical and electronic circuits and overhead power systems. Ceiling panels are up to 7.5 inches (190 mm) thick. Insulator has good mechanical strength for the conductor load. Learn more about where to insulate. It is currently available only as a foamed-in-place insulation. Always it is placed in a vertical position. … Suspension insulators are most beneficial than the other insulator. Primarily, it is used in bend or arm place of the transmission line. Multiple insulator materials are easily available in the market. In the figure, the pin type insulator is shown. Other types of insulation are used in dielectric applications for radio frequency cables. The foam is water vapor permeable, remains flexible, and is resistant to wicking of moisture. It helps to protect switchgear, transformer, and other systems in a substation. For use as insulation, sheep's wool is also treated with borate to resist pests, fire, and mold. BIBS is blown in dry, and tests have shown that walls insulated with a BIBS system are significantly better filled than those insulated using other forms of fiberglass insulation such as batts. Porcelain insulators are made from clay, quartz or alumina and feldspar, and are covered with a smooth glaze to shed water. Polystyrene--a colorless, transparent thermoplastic--is commonly used to make foam board or beadboard insulation, concrete block insulation, and a type of loose-fill insulation consisting of small beads of polystyrene. Cementitious insulation material is a cement-based foam used as sprayed-foam or foamed-in-placed insulation. Other less common materials such as cementitious and phenolic foams and vermiculite and perlite are also available. Which type of Insulators used in Power System? Over time, the R-value of polyisocyanurate insulation can drop as some of the low-conductivity gas escapes and air replaces it -- a phenomenon is known as thermal drift or ageing. Ceiling panels are up to 7.5 inches (190 mm) thick. Building a new energy-efficient home requires carefully selecting where you place and install insulation materials. Polyurethane foam insulation is available in closed-cell and open-cell formulas. This article provides an overview of the main options in … In an overhead power system, insulators work as a protector which is made by insulating materials like ceramic, glass, and porcelain. Post Insulator. Read more: 6 different Insulator types with specification, properties and uses. In the distribution line, the metallic strip is used to connect the shackle insulator. Find product information and locate professional services for insulation and air sealing. Mineral wool is usually produced from 75% post-industrial recycled content. The paper is broken down into cellular fibers that provide insulation. The insulator is used to support the overhead conductor. Straw bale construction, popular 150 years ago on the Great Plains of the United States, has received renewed interest. The insulator works as a protective device when the sudden fault condition or voltage change occurs in the line conductor. It occurs in small size as compared to other insulators. Controlling moisture can make your home more energy-efficient, less costly to heat and cool, and more comfortable. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Here, I am describing one of the most important overhead system’s components called the Electrical Insulator. The insulator work as a Protector or Protective device. Insulating the entire building envelope of your home saves money and improves comfort. The denser products are intended for insulating areas with limited cavity space, such as cathedral ceilings. The multiple discs can be used based on voltage level (low to high). Shackle Insulator occurs in small size on the overhead distribution system. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable EnergyForrestal Building1000 Independence Avenue, SWWashington, DC 20585. Which Insulation is used in an Electrical Machine? Glass type materials are used in strain/ suspension type insulators. Adding insulation to your home is a sound investment that is likely pay for itself quickly in reduced utility bills. Liquid foam can be injected between two wood skins under considerable pressure, and, when hardened, the foam produces a strong bond between the foam and the skins. XPS is most commonly used as foam board insulation. I am very glad and motivate, if my knowledge can contribute to the learner. High-density batts for a 2 by 6 inch (51 by 152 mm) frame wall offer R-21, and high-density batts for an 8.5-inch (216-mm) spaces yield about an R-30 value. Wall panels made of polyurethane are typically 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick. Common facing materials include kraft paper, white vinyl sheeting, and aluminum foil. Manufacturers now produce medium- and high-density fiberglass batt insulation products that have slightly higher R-values than the standard batts. Still, if you have vermiculite insulation in your attic, do not disturb it. Molded expanded polystyrene (MEPS), commonly used for foam board insulation, is also available as small foam beads. Water vapor can easily pass through it, and it breaks down at prolonged temperatures above 190°F (88°C). It is now used primarily for masonry walls in commercial and industrial buildings. Foam board or liquid foam can be used to manufacture a SIP. Experimental data indicates that most thermal drift occurs within the first two years after the insulation material is manufactured. Liquid foam can be injected between two wood skins under considerable pressure, and, when hardened, the foam produces a strong bond between the foam and the skins. Common insulation materials are wool, fiberglass, rock wool, polystyrene, polyurethane, and goose feather etc. This is all about different insulator types, uses, and their specification. Insulator has very high resistivity (offers very high resistance). The material used in the insulator is waterproof or non-porous. Sheep's wool batts for a 2 by 4 inch and 2 by 6 inch stud-framed wall offer an R-13 and R-19 value, respectively. Here, the insulator is used for connecting many other electrical components. The electrical insulator has a high resistivity. Like polyiso foam, the R-value of closed-cell polyurethane insulation can drop over time as some of the low-conductivity gas escapes and air replaces it in a phenomenon known as thermal drift or ageing. For low voltage … Low-density foams are sprayed into open wall cavities and rapidly expand to seal and fill the cavity. A facing protects the insulation's surface, holds the insulation together, and facilitates fastening to building components. When damp sprayed, a small amount of moisture is added at the spray nozzle tip, activating natural starches in the product and causing it to adhere inside the cavity. Insulation materials run the gamut from bulky fiber materials such as fiberglass, rock and slag wool, cellulose, and natural fibers to rigid foam boards to sleek foils. Cotton insulation consists of 85% recycled cotton and 15% plastic fibers that have been treated with borate--the same flame retardant and insect/rodent repellent used in cellulose insulation. Pin insulator can sustain up to 11kV voltage capacity. Air krete® is pumped into closed cavities. Types of building insulation can be broken down in many different ways. Fiberglass: Fiberglass is the most common insulation material. Types of Disc Insulators. The liquid foam expands very slowly, reducing the chance of damaging the wall from overexpansion. If one disc can sustain an 11kv voltage capacity and six discs can sustain 66kv voltage. Radiant barriers are effective for reducing summer heat gain in cooling climates. Because, if any of the disc damages from the suspension insulator, the remaining disc will operate. Pin Type Electrical Insulator. It can hold large quantities of water, which is an advantage for use in some walls, but repeated wetting and drying can leach out the borate. The pin insulator has a simple construction. Suspension insulator requires more height for supporting the multiple discs. Rock wool, a man-made material consisting of natural minerals like basalt or diabase. Foil and plastic facings on rigid polyurethane foam panels can help stabilize the R-value, slowing down thermal drift. I have completed master in Electrical Power System. These substances are the heart of modern electronics and feature four valence electrons, providing the switching abilities required by transistors, integrated chips and computer processors. Top 12 Difference between Conductor and Insulator in Tabular Form, [AIR 5] GATE EE Study Plan shared by Sayantan Bhattacharya, Insulating Materials & Insulation Classes, Electrical & Electronics Abbrivations Dictionary. Strain Insulator. A radiant barrier is a single reflective surface that faces an … Cementitious foam costs about as much as polyurethane foam, is nontoxic and nonflammable, and is made from minerals (like magnesium oxide) extracted from seawater. One type of cementitious spray foam insulation known as air krete® contains magnesium silicate and has an initial consistency similar to shaving cream. In new construction, cellulose can be either damp-sprayed or installed dry behind netting. It has relatively higher number of petticoats and rain sheds. UF foam insulation uses compressed air as the foaming agent. It is used in higher voltage condition i.e. Disc insulators are classified into types which include suspension type and strain type. Which is the Best Electrical Insulator Material? This type of insulator has strong mechanical strength. Vermiculite and perlite consist of very small, lightweight pellets, which are made by heating rock pellets until they pop. Depending on the application, insulation generally is from plastic, … Known as either blown-in or loose-fill, this type … R-38 batts for 12-inch (304-mm) spaces are also available. Insulators including plastic, Styrofoam and reflective materials may be used to stop thermal energy from moving to certain regions. Cellulose can also be blown dry into netting stapled over building cavities. Slag wool, a man-made material from blast furnace slag (the waste matter that forms on the surface of molten metal). It’s made from fine glass fibers and is most often used in batts, rolls and loose-fill ... Cellulose: Cellulose insulation is made from recycled paper products. It is made up of material which has high mechanical strength. How to identify types of insulation used in buildings & their mechanical systems: This series of articles provides details about all types of building insulation, identifying each type of insulation. Cellulose, a fiber insulation material with a high recycled content, is blown into a home attic. Especially, glass types of insulators used in the lightweight condition. Strain insulator- In high voltage line, strain insulator are used. Highly reflective foils in radiant barriers and reflective insulation systems reflect radiant heat away from living spaces, making them particularly useful in cooling climates. Due to this high resistance, electrical current does not flow from one point to another. This kind of insulation is done with aid of spray holders. INSULATION MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES MP-1 SECTION 2 INSULATION MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES 2.1 DEFINITION OF INSULATION Insulations are defined as those materials or combinations of materials which retard the flow of heat energy by performing one or more of the following functions: 1. Polyisocyanurate or polyiso is a thermosetting type of plastic, closed-cell foam that contains a low-conductivity, hydrochlorofluorocarbon-free gas in its cells. And sometimes I delve in Python programming. Insulation effectiveness is measured by its thermal resistance value, or R-value, a number between 1 and 60 that reflects the material’s resistance to heat transfer. Both MEPS and XPS are often used as the insulation for structural insulating panels (SIPs) and insulating concrete forms (ICFs). How to insulate shipping container homes means you have to consider the R-values of your insulation material. Foamed-in-place applications of polyisocyanurate insulation are usually cheaper than installing foam boards, and perform better because the liquid foam molds itself to all of the surfaces. Blown-in / loose-fill insulation. Depending upon the size and orientation of the air space, this can add another R-2 to the overall thermal resistance. It has a high relative permittivity of insulator material. In most U.S. climates, vapor diffusion retarders can help prevent moisture problems, increase energy efficiency, and improve comfort in homes. A medium-density batt offers R-13 for the same space. Each insulator can have multiple insulating discs. Cellulose insulation includes cellulose cells that have natural insulating power. In existing structures, installers remove a strip of exterior siding, usually about waist high; drill a row of three inch holes, one into each stud bay, through the wall sheathing; insert a special filler tube to the top of the wall cavity; and blow the insulation into the building cavity, typically to a density of 3.5 lb. Difference Between Insulator, Insulating and Dielectric Materials In the transmission and distribution systems, six different types of insulators are used. These panels, although more expensive, are more fire and water vapor-diffusion resistant than EPS. If you have any point to discuss about insulators, write in the comment section. Important Electrical Insulator Properties. Your articles are Very knowledgeable, & useful for electrical engineer, electrical contractor, electrical students. It must be added, thermal insulation is primarily based on the very low thermal conductivity of gases. The better the insulation, the higher the R-value. The process of fusing straw into boards without adhesives was developed in the 1930s. They also insulate 30% to 40% better for given thickness. Cellulose insulation is used in both new and existing homes, as loose-fill in open attic installations and dense packed in building cavities such as walls and cathedral ceilings. Post type insulators are mostly used in substations, but in some cases, they can be used for overhead lines also. Types of Insulation. Insulator is a material or a device which restrics the flow of  free electrons (or charge). Conserve … Best for: Do-it-yourself insulation of … Depending upon the size and orientation of the air space, this can add another R-2 to the overall thermal resistance. Most manufacturers use 40% to 60% recycled glass content. Its R-value is similar to other fibrous insulation types. Know what best suits your purpose. Open-cell foam cells are not as dense and are filled with air, which gives the insulation a spongy texture and a lower R-value. One variation of fiberglass loose-fill insulation is the Blow-In-Blanket System® (BIBS). These materials are very poor conductors of heat and are therefore good thermal insulators. Blowing the insulation should take less than 1.5 hours and the whole job can be completed in less than 4 hours based on a 1,000 sq. Sprayed or foamed-in-place applications of polyurethane insulation are usually cheaper than installing foam boards, and these applications usually perform better because the liquid foam molds itself to all of the surfaces. EPS and XPS are both made from polystyrene, but EPS is composed of small plastic beads that are fused together and XPS begins as a molten material that is pressed out of a form into sheets. The term "mineral wool" typically refers to two types of insulation material: Mineral wool contains an average of 75% post-industrial recycled content.