[47][48] Heat appears to be the most influencing factor when it comes to decreasing the organic acid content. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. [12], Similar to the introduction of grape vine and olive cultivation to the Latin world, C. sativa is thought to have been introduced during the colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks. [25] Low temperature in autumn can damage the fruit. After a year, the young trees are being transplanted.[25]. Delivery is free. Discover The Sweet Chestnut Share a family meal or a quiet dinner at The Sweet Chestnut in Dunfermline. The leaves are quite glossy and there are about 20 pairs of prominent parallel veins. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. Regarding mineral content, the chestnut provides a good source for Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and K.[39] Its sugar content ranges from 14% to 20% dry weight depending on the cultivar;[45] which is very important, since the sensory appeal of sweet chestnut is correlated with its sugar content. Height: Broadening with age, the sweet chestnut can reach up to 40 metres in height. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. Chestnut blight canker on the stem of a sweet chestnut tree. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. [28] Before planting, seeds must be stratified at 2-3 °C so germination can start 30–40 days later. Cooking dry in an oven or fire normally helps remove this skin. The Romans ground sweet chestnuts into a flour or coarse meal.Sweet chestnuts are a rich source of vitamins C (the only nut that is) and B, and minerals including magnesium, potassium and iron. [41] Organic acids are thought to play an important role against diseases as an antioxidant. 1982873. Bark - sweet chestnut (C. sativa) Its bark is smooth when young, [22] of a vinous maroon or red-brown color for the American chestnut, [13] grey for the European chestnut. [54] The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. However, high sugar amounts seem to have a negative impact on the fiber content. However, the ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name Castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts. It is thought to have been introduced to the British Isles by the Romans and today can be found commonly throughout the UK in woods and copses, especially in parts of southern England where it is still managed to form large areas of coppice. Sweet chestnut bark extract is particularly rich in tannins; therefore, we have investigated the ability of the extract to protect cultured cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress. 301, 643 CE). A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. [35][38] The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. [6] The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad. Sweet chestnut and specifically the chestnut tree bark are found to be a very effective remedy for Diarrhea. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. [12], Increasing sweet chestnut pollen appearances in Switzerland, France, Germany and the Iberian peninsula in the first century A.D. suggests the spreading of cultivated sweet chestnut trees by the Romans. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. The cooked nuts can be used for stuffing poultry, as a vegetable or in nut roasts. Nevertheless, roasted or boiled chestnuts may still be a solid vitamin C source, since 100 gram still represent about 20% of the recommended daily dietary intake. Twigs are purple-brown and buds are red-brown and oval in shape. 1.5k. [12] Several Greek authors wrote about medicinal properties of the sweet chestnut, specifically as a remedy against lacerations of the lips and of the oesophagus. [4] In cultivation they may even grow as old as 1000 years or more. [10] Nowadays there are cultivars that are resistant to the ink disease. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. After pollination by insects, female flowers develop into shiny, red-brown fruits wrapped in a green, spiky case. [33][34][35] Sweet chestnut is also appreciated in a gluten-free diet. [12] Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF … Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well. Typically a veteran sweet chestnut will be 150-300 years of age and a notable sweet chestnut may be 100-200 years old. They can also be used in confections, puddings, desserts and cakes. Miller. It's an A-Z tree guide in your pocket. Its naturally high concentration of organic acids is a key factor influencing the organoleptic characteristics of fruits and vegetables, namely flavor. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age. The flowers of both sexes are borne in 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, upright catkins, the male flowers in the upper part and female flowers in the lower part. The species is widely cultivated for its edible seeds (also called nuts) and for its wood. [15] Nonetheless, until the end of the pre-Christian era, the spread and use of the chestnut in Italy remained limited. Image of form, branch, figure - 129117383 Explore wrightrkuk's photos on Flickr. The buds alternate on young shoots. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. [24], Three different cultivation systems for the sweet chestnut can be distinguished:[25], The field management is dependent on the cultivation system. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. The most widespread treatment before storage is water curing, a process in which the sweet chestnuts are immersed in water for nine days. 294344) and in Scotland (No. [39][40] Sweet chestnut is a good source for starch,[41]; chestnuts of all varieties generally contain about the same amount of starch. The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans". Sep 19th, 2011 by Richard. C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft) with a trunk often 2 m (7 ft) in diameter. [22], The species is widely distributed throughout Europe, where in 2004 C. sativa was grown on 2.25 million hectares of forest, of which 1.78 million hectares were mainly cultivated for wood and 0.43 million hectares for fruit production. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. Phytophthora cambivora caused serious damage in Asia and the US, and it still continues to destroy new plantations in Europe. In Switzerland, it is often served as Vermicelles. Names of Sweet Chestnut in various languages of the world are also given. This Spring and Summer we have been experimenting with some of the uses of the bark from Sweet Chestnut Trees and wish to share some of our findings. [9][10] In North America as well as in Southern Europe Cryphonectria parasitica destroyed most of the chestnut population in the 20th century. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. [6][11] Ink disease is infesting trees mostly in humid soils, with the mycelium invading the root and resulting in wilting of the leaf. [42] The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). The ink disease is named after the black exudates at the base of the trunk. In the past, its characteristic and nutritional components gave sweet chestnut an important role in human nutrition due to its beneficial health effects. Long-distance spread of C. parasitica can occur through movements of infected sweet chestnut plants, wood or bark in trade.Once bark has been colonised, the mycelium of the pathogen is reported to survive in this tissue for up to 10 months, even if it has been air dried. A substantial, long-lived deciduous tree, it produces an edible seed, the chestnut, which has been used in cooking since ancient times. But the younger chestnut tree has a smoother bark. How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Most sweet chestnut is consumed in processed form, which has an impact on the nutrient composition. [43] C. sativa is characterized by high moisture content which ranges from 41% to 59 %[44] and a considerable level of starch (≈40 g 100 g−1 dry matter). Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. 79. Doing so is time-saving and economical, but it's possible that some fruits get injured, and a big initial investment is needed. 6 In modern herbal medicine, sweet chestnut’s bark, leaves, flowers and nuts are considered to be strengthening, calming, astringent, and digestive, even though the tree is not so well used today. A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. It is used to make furniture, barrels (sometimes used to age balsamic vinegar), and roof beams notably in southern Europe (for example in houses of the Alpujarra, Spain, in southern France and elsewhere). Oxidative Damage. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. sativa.[29]. Mechanical: The fruits are collected with a machine that works similarly to a vacuum cleaner. Nevertheless, centuries-old specimens may be found in Great Britain today. Making a basket from sweet chestnut bark 1 This entry was posted in Bushcraft Skills Woodland Skills on 29/05/2017 by Gary (updated 409 days ago) We’ve recently held our Cordage & Containers course and so took the opportunity to get some photos of the process involved in making a sweet chestnut bark basket. Examples can be seen particularly in the London Boroughs of Islington and Camden. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age. The fruit contains significant amounts of a wide range of valuable nutrients. [52][53], This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. Flowers: Some catkins have male and female flowers on the same stalk. Weird Trees Sweet Chestnut Magical Tree Unique Trees Old Trees Tree Trunks Nature Tree Big Tree Tree Forest. It can live to more than 2,000 years of age in natural conditions, see the poetically-named "hundred-horse chestnut" in eastern Sicily for example. Inside, there is an edible, creamy-white part developed from the cotyledon.[5]. By hand with nets: This technique is less time-consuming and protects the fruits from injuries. Since the beginning of the 20th century, due to depopulation of the countryside and the abandonment of the sweet chestnut as a staple food as well as the spread of chestnut blight and ink disease, C. sativa cultivation has dramatically decreased. Both cultivars bear fruits with a single large kernel, rather than the usual two to four smaller kernels. These trees can develop vast girths of up to 2m in diameter. Furthermore, a visual sorting is not possible. With biological control, the population of the sweet chestnut is not threatened anymore by the chestnut blight and is regenerating. A lovely thought, in late summer early autumn the chestnuts ripen to full size,some bursting out of the spiky cases.The chestnuts we buy in shops today are usually imported from France or … [32] Sweet chestnut In southeast England, sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles.Unlike the nuts of the horse chestnut, those of the sweet chestnut are edible to humans and can be roasted and used in a variety of recipes, including stuffing for poultry, cake fillings, nut roasts and much more. Sweet chestnut can grow up to 9m plus in girth. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. Find the perfect sweet chestnut tree bark stock photo. The two major fungal pathogens of the sweet chestnut are the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and the ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora and Phytophthora cinnamomi. [12] Widespread use of chestnut in western Europe started in the early Middle Ages and flourished in the late Middle Ages. The aim of this work was the hydrothermal treatment of chestnut tannins in the temperature range 120–300 °C and reaction times of 15, 30 and 60 min. It has a straight grain when young, but this spirals in older trees. These are catkins fully developed with burs that are ready to be pollinated. It is a native of northern and central parts of Asia, from … [17][18] Contrary to that notion, other scientists found no indication of the Romans spreading C. sativa before the fifth century. 1 (1768). [8] A hair shampoo can be made from infusing leaves and fruit husks. About 16–28 cm long, 5–9 cm wide and oblong with a pointed tip and a serrated or toothed edge. The flowers of Sourwood can be mistaken for chestnut at a distance. [27] The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. No other evidence of sweet chestnut in Roman Britain has been confirmed. [45], Sweet chestnut is suited for human nutrition. With age, American species' bark becomes grey and darker, thick, and deeply furrowed ; the furrows run longitudinally, and tend to twist around the trunk … [5] Their large genetic diversity and different cultivars are exploited for uses such as flour, boiling, roasting, drying, sweets or wood. [8], The ornamental cultivar C. sativa 'Albomarginata'[56] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit, Media related to Castanea sativa at Wikimedia Commons, The examples and perspective in this article. The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. [8], Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[23] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its supposed effect on health. [12] In the beginning of the Christian era, people probably started to realize the value and versatility of sweet chestnut wood, leading to a slow spread of the cultivation of C. sativa trees, a theory that is supported by pollen data and literary sources, as well as the increased use of sweet chestnut wood as poles and in supporting structures, wood works and pier building between A.D. 100 and 600. The remains of the male catkin stay attached to the husk until it falls off. This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. Credit: Martin Fowler / Alamy Stock Photo. These old trees provide us with our classic Christmas nut. [26], The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil. Absence of fruit formation leads to die back of the petal. It has a straight grain when young but this spirals in older trees. The optimal average temperature is between 8 °C and 15 °C[25] and in January the temperature should preferably not be below -1 °C[27] but it may tolerate temperatures as low as -15 °C. [13] Compared to other crops, the sweet chestnut was probably of relatively minor importance and distributed very heterogeneously throughout these regions.