Seasonal abundance of the cotton leafworm moths, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. Sidibe B, Lauge G, 1977. Geo-Eco-Trop: Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Écologie Tropicales. Indeed, we show that a given concentration of deltamethrin has different effects between stages, and even between sexes. Survey of resistance to organophosphorous insecticides in field strains of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) The number of eggs laid is adversely affected by higher 80 (5), 395-398. The chemical control of S. littoralis has been extensively reported, especially in relation to cotton in Egypt. The biology of the cotton leaf-worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. Performance of the newly identified endoparasitoid Cotesia icipe Fernandez-Triana & Fiaboe on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval). I. Garrido-Jurado, G. Resquín-Romero, M. Yousef-Naef, A. Ríos-Moreno, E. Quesada-Moraga, Soil drenching with entomopathogenic fungi for control of the soil-dwelling life stages and adults of the same generation of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) chinensis (Chinese cabbage), Cynara cardunculus var. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin , 41, 145-146., Salama HS, Dimetry NZ, Salem SA, 1970. Soc. 1610. For planting material, EPPO recommends (OEPP/EPPO, 1990) absence of the pests from the place of production during the last 3 months, or treatment of the consignment. The genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Africa and the Near East. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. Moths of Southern Africa. The moths are good flyers and can disperse over a long distance in search of new/suitable host plants. Potency and effect of Bacillus thuringiensis preparations against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis and Boarmia (Ascotis) selenaria.. Phytoparasitica, 11(1):3-11; [1 fig. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 92(4), 420-422. Are bioinsecticides able to effectively substitute chemicals in the control of insect pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Cote d'Ivoire? Souka S, 1980. The distribution and migration of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in relation to meteorology on Cyprus, interpreted from maps of pheromone trap samples. 6 (2), 79-83. €The masses are covered by hair-like scales from the end of the insect's abdomen. The shape of the juxta in males in both species is very characteristic, and the ornamentation of the aedeagus vesica is also diagnostic. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca. Les mediateurs chimiques agissant sur le comportement des insectes. Streito J C, Nibouche S, 1997. Chen BoSheng, Teh BengSoon, Sun Chao, Hu SiRui, Lu XingMeng, Boland W, Shao YongQi, 2016. Sous-famille des Melicleptriinae. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 13(2):369-379, Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M, 1997. Chemicals used against species of Spodoptera also include insect growth regulators. 14435-14447. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series, 14:399-404, Jones KA, Irving NS, Grzywacz D, Moawad GM, Hussein AH, Fargahly A, 1994. Armyworm includes several species including the Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), Fall Armyworm (S. frugiperda) and Southern Armyworm (S. eridania) in the U.S. Effect of four host plants on nutritional performance of cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 67(3):501-522, Campion DG, Hosny MM, 1987. Butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and … As with most caterpillar larvae, the earlier the treatment is made the more effective it will be since the youngest larval stages are the most susceptible. The analysis of flight paths of male Egyptian cotton leafworm moths, Spodoptera littoralis, to a sex pheromone source in the field. Each generation lasts about a month, but temperature causes slight variations: life cycles in the winter tend to be slightly more than one month, and life cycles in the summer tend to be less than a full month. Contribution to the knowledge of the crop pest fauna in Ethiopia. Tecnica Agricola, 37(3-4):283-297, IPPC, 2013. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 116, 40-48. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2014.09.009, Elnagar S, El-Sheikh MA, 1990. Famille des Noctuidae. The pupal period is spent in earthen cells in the soil and lasts about 11-13 days at 25°C. Integrated pest management techniques, favouring beneficial arthropods, are applied against S. littoralis on cotton in Egypt. 10 (11), 1224-1232., Sadek M M, 2011. Effect of age of the adult stage of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. Study on the quarantine treatments of insect pests on chrysanthemum cut flowers the application of protection bags and the improved dipping methods. Kehat M, Greenberg S, 1978. There is interest, especially in India, in various antifeedant compounds or extracts, and in natural products, such as azadirachtin and neem extracts.IPM scolymus (globe artichoke), Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke), Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Successive cultivation and systems of integrated control in protected crops of the Mediterranean area. 45-54., Mobouna G M, Lenga A, Latham P, Kinkela T, Mbuta A K K, Bouyer T, Roulon-Doko P, Malaisse F, 2016. Host-plant selection by Spodoptera littoralis, a laboratory and field study. Storage at slightly higher temperatures or shorter durations does not eradicate S. littoralis, but differences in response to cold have been observed both between strains and within developmental stages of the pest (Powell and Gostick, 1971; Miller, 1976). Wallingford, UK: CABI. The cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) is a highly polyphagous species feeding on plants of 40 families, containing 87 species of economic importance. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 22(3-4):425-431, Kehat M, Gordon D, 1975. Ocete Rubio E, 1984. S. littoralis is not established in the northern parts of Europe and the UK due to cooler temperatures and its quarantined pest status. Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS). Crop Protection, 13(5):337-340, Kehat M, Dunkelblum E, 1993. DOI:10.21276/sajb.2017.5.2.4, Adja N A, Nandjui J, Sadia G H, Adingra T, Akamou F, Danho M, 2019. and germplasm screening for insect resistance in Tanzania. After the eggs are laid, female coats the eggs with scales from its abdomen. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. (Lepid., Noctuidae). dendrolimus,, Wang CL, Lin RT, 1984. Female moths lay a batch of eggs that ranges from 20–1,000 eggs on the lower side of a host plant's leaves. Sinet, Ethiopian Journal of Science, 26(2), 145-150. Eventually occlusion bodies are formed leading to hypertrophy of cells and death. Scientific Journal of Agriculture. Although markings on larvae are variable, a bright-yellow stripe along the length of the dorsal surface is characteristic of S. litura. Oviposition starts between 2 and 5 days after emergence, and female lay more than 3000 eggs in egg masses of 20-350 on the lower leaf surface of the host plant (El-Sayes, 1977; El-Malki, 2000). Biorational Crop ProtectionValent BioSciencesBiorational Crop EnhancementSoil HealthPublic HealthForest Health, Contact a Valent BioSciences representative. Baculoviruses are no exception. Susceptibility of Spodoptera littoralis, Field Populations in Egypt to Chlorantraniliprole and the Role of Detoxification Enzymes. These spherical eggs show white to yellowish color and are 0.6 mm in diameter. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 25(4):263-265, Adamou H, Garba M, Mairo M D, Adamou B, Oumarou S, Gougari B, Kimba A, Abou M, Delmas P, 2017. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A No. Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera littoralis eggs and neonate larvae to eliminate the pest on flowers for export. 2278-2289. Irradiation has been investigated as a treatment for cut flowers (Navon et al., 1988). Entomologie appliqué a l'agriculture. Biological, cultural and selective methods for control of cotton pests in Egypt. The use of sex pheromones in the control of Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. Vol. Cold storage of chrysanthemum and carnation cuttings for at least 10 days at a temperature not exceeding 1.7°C will kill all stages of S. littoralis, but may damage the plants. Study on the quarantine treatments of insect pests on chrysanthemum cut flowers, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Sokame B M, Tchabi A, Tounou A K, Agboka K, Penoukou E, 2018. Growth and development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. The female lays from 100-300 whitish-yellow eggs in clusters covered with moth scales on the under surfaces of leaves. DOI:10.1007/s10905-010-9238-4. Two important insect pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) and S. littoralis (Boisd. ===, 1981. Here, we investigated the responses of the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis to low concentrations of deltamethrin, and tested for variation in effects of the pesticide between developmental stages and sexes. into glasshouses in the UK. Host plant shifting affects the biology of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Rotterdam, The Netherlands, [7+]273pp, Powell DF, Gostick KG, 1971. Famille des Noctuidae. Campion D G, 1974. 40 (2), 75-103., Murlis J, Bettany B W, Kelley J, Martin L, 1982. Amin, A. Hemmati F, 1990. In Minnesota and New York, where fall armyworm moths do not appear until August, there may be but a single generation. Natural enemies of noctuid pests (Lep., Noctuidae) on alfalfa, corn, cotton and soybean crops in southern Spain. Baculovirus, as a promising biocontrol element in the pest management of the cotton leafworm in Egypt. ©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin. Environmental Entomology, 18(4):548-551, Rizk GA, Soliman MA, Ismael HM, 1990. Helicoverpa armigera Hb. Life Cycle. Sinet, Ethiopian Journal of Science. Popular hosts include cotton, corn, tomato, okra, onion, cabbage and cucurbits. Qualitas plantarum Plant foods for human nutrition, 24(43832), 219-229. doi: 10.1007/BF01092737, Miller GW, 1976. C), and forced to produce more virus particles until the cell, and ultimately the insect, dies. Second Edition. Journal of Applied Entomology. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 38(1), 99-110. doi: 10.3906/tar-1302-65, Pinhey ECG, 1975. Phytoparasitica. 26 (2), 145-150. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life-cycle of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Spodoptera littoralis absent in Denmark. Versailles, 16-20 novembre 1981 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Paris France, 335-342, Cayrol RA, 1972. 110 (3), 924-930. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0418.2002.00622.x, Lanzoni A, Bazzocchi G G, Reggiori F, Rama F, Sannino L, Maini S, Burgio G, 2012. ... leaves and six to nine batches of eggs in her life time. Optimum conditions for rearing are 27 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Geographical distribution of the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Delvare G, Rasplus JY, 1994. The cotton worm Prodenia litura F. in Egypt. Biological Control In: Balachowsky AS, ed. Research Bulletin, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, No. Sublethal effects of emamectin benzoate on life table parameters of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Bull. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Integrated management strategies for control of cotton key pests in Middle Egypt. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 48(2):369-374, Baker CRB, Miller GW, 1974. 1749:6 [+8] pp, Masetti, A., Luigi, V. de, Burgio, G., 2008. International Letters of Natural Sciences. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(3):86-102, Roméo, H. C., Champlain, D. L., Chantal, A. D., Stephan, E. A. P., 2015. ), in relation to temperature. Souka (1980) experimented with irradiation for sterile-insect release, but this technique has not been widely applied in the field.Phytosanitary Measures Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 63:19-27, Viette PEL, 1962. DNK-09/1, Rome, Italy: FAO. 2. 34-48. The ability to diapause is not present in this species. ), in relation to the accumulated heat. Effect of soil moisture content on the vitality of the pupal stage of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. A new record for Turkish fauna Chelonus oculator Panzer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its two new hosts. An EPPO standard provides guidance for the identification of S. littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania (OEPP/, Beta vulgaris var. [Distribution map]. Soldan T, Spitzer K, 1983. Journal of Applied Biosciences. Threshold temperatures and thermal requirements for the development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, EPPO, 2014. Khalifa M H, El-Shahawi F I, Mansour N A, 2017. Hassadeh, 68(4):722-724, Nucifora A, 1985. The pest overwinters as pupa in the soil. The total life cycle is completed in 11–13 days in C. cephalonica and in 10 days in other hosts. More information about modern web browsers can be found at (Lep., Noctuidae). DOI:10.1093/jee/tox085. The young caterpillars live on the underside of leaves. (Lep. Study of the biological cycle of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) at different temperatures. Some effects of temperature and larval food on the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d'Egypte, 18:223-404, Brown ES, Dewhurst CF, 1975. Field and laboratory observations on the parasitoids of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Gelichiidae) in Niger. Six larval instars of Spodoptera littoralis over a three week time period occur in warm climates, with an additional larval stage and longer development times in cooler regions. Preliminary studies on insect pest incidence on tomato in Bama, Borno State, Nigeria. Amin A A, Gergis M F, 2006. and Tetranychus urticae (Koch) by cold storage and fumigation. saccharifera (sugarbeet), Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers), Brassica oleracea var. Plant protection for human welfare British Crop Protection Council Croydon UK, 270, Hosny MM, Topper CP, Moawad GM, El-Saadany GB, 1986. )(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), on various crops - morphological discrimination of the adult, pupal and larval stages. Obeng-Ofori, D., Sackey, J., 2003. Phytoparasitica, 3(2):87-102, Khalifa A, Iss-hak RR, Foda ME, 1982. Results: We produced male and female Illumina-based transcriptomes from chemosensory and non-chemosensory tissues of S. littoralis, including the antennae, proboscis, brain and body carcass. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. 234-241. The cells of the host's body are taken over by the genetic message carried within each virion (Fig. ]; 10 ref, Navon A, Yatom S, Padova R, Ross I, 1988. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. The development of lure and kill technique for control of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2018.05.047. Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences (SAJB). 92 (4), 420-422. (Effet des champignons mycorrhiziens arbusculaires sur la diversité et la dynamique des insectes phyllophages et l’incidence des dégâts sur les feuilles de Solanum macrocarpum L. au Togo). 4 (3), 357-362. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3032.1982.tb00319.x. 108 (1), 80-88. The pest has a wide host range, feeding on the leaves and fruiting structures of more than 44 plant families. 61 (revised). from Kenya. Hemmati, F., 1990. Thus, the life cycle can be completed in about 5 weeks. Second Edition. Integrated Pest Management in Tropical and Subtropical Cropping Systems '89, held on 8-15 February 1989 in Bad Durkheim, Germany Frankfurt, Germany; Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft, 669-683, El-Shafei SA, Iss-hak RR, Nasr ESA, 1981. Holloway JD, 1989. Spodoptera littoralis male capture suppression in processing spinach using two kinds of synthetic sex-pheromone dispensers. Ent. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. Journal of Applied Entomology. Agronomy Research. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, Economic Series, 14:405-411, Issa YH, Keddis ME, Ayad FA, Abdel-Sattar MM, El-Guindy MA, 1984. ), on the rate of oviposition, egg-fertility and life span of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Cotton pests and their natural enemies in Madagascar. Appearance and life cycle Occlusion bodies are ingested by larvae, dissolved in mid gut and virions are released which go on to release their DNA for replication and expression. Map 232. Effect of nutrition on the biology of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. Spodoptera littoralis is native to Africa, the Middle East and the Mediterranean countries of Europe. Bulletin SROP, 10(3):59-60, Merdan, A., Abdel-Rahman, H., Soliman, A., 1974. When the pupae form, they are green with a reddish abdomen … Complementary behaviors of maternal and offspring Spodoptera littoralis: oviposition site selection and larval movement together maximize performance. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Bulletin of Insectology. Journal of Economic Entomology. Descriptions and colour illustrations of 1183 species. The subsequent stages of instars of S. littoralis and S. litura can be recognized by the increasing size of the dark spot at the SD1‐position on the first abdominal segment. Longevity of adults is about 4-10 days, being reduced by high temperature and low humidity. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. They can grow up to 1½ to 1 ¾ inches (3.81 to 4.45 cm) in length. Effects of nucleopolyhedrovirus based product on Spodoptera littoralis. Pheromones have also been used for mass trapping using a lure and kill strategy (McVeigh and Bettany, 1987) and for monitoring populations. Rome, Italy: FAO. I observed larvae at all instars in Gran Canaria in mid-December 2007 and La Palma in December 2010. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 38(4), 261-273. doi: 10.1017/S1742758418000115. 42 (4), 543-557. ), (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on three leguminous summer vegetable crops. Gbèdolo A E, Dassou A G, Dassou H G, Aminon I D, Omondi B A, Dansi A, 2018. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 71(2):181-184, Sawicki RM, 1986. Strategic incorporation of biocontrol agents for managing alien insect pests. Malayan Nature Journal, 42(2-3):57-228, Hosny MM, Saadany G, Iss-Hak R, Nasr EA, Moawad G, Naguib M, Khidr AA, Elnagar SH, Campion DG, Critchley BR, Jones K, McKinley DJ, McVeigh LJ, Topper CP, 1983. Damage thresholds have been established by Hosny et al. Egypte, 44:337-343, Hegazi EM, Hammad SM, El-Minshawy AM, 1977. 2, Paris, France: Masson et Cie, 1431-1444, CIE, 1967a. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 84(3):316-321. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 41(3), 609-620. These white-yellow color of the eggs turn black just before hatching due to the presence of black larval head near the transparent shell. Bulletin of Insectology, 61(2), 299-302., McVeigh LJ, Bettany BW, 1987. 5 (2), 108-113. Some moths recorded at sex pheromone traps in Mitidja, Algeria (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, Pyralidae, Noctuidae). Application rate trials with a nuclear polyhedrosis virus to control Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Family: Noctuidae Biodiversity and activity of the gut microbiota across the life history of the insect herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Economic damage thresholds of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Effects of irradiation by sterilizing and substerilizing doses on parents and F(1) of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). The fall armyworm is a highly polyphagous migratory lepidopteran pest species. Treatment with Bacillus thuringiensis has been used (Navon et al., 1983), but only some strains are effective as S. littoralis is resistant to many strains (Salama et al., 1989).Chemical Control The Efficacy of Spinosad on Different Strains of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). resistance. The developmental thresholds and thermal requirements for different stages of S. litura are 64 day degrees above threshold 8°C, from oviposition to egg hatch, the larval period required 303 degree days and the pupal stage 155 degree days above a 10°C threshold. Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids can be countered successfully. General. The hourly activity of Spodoptera littoralis moths during the night as indicated by light trap catches. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 33(3):325-330, Williams EC, Walters KFA, 1996. It originates in Egypt, and is currently found in Africa, the Canary Islands, the Middle East and parts of Mediterranean Europe including the Balearic Islands, Madeira and the Azores. Bulletin, Organisation Europeenne et Mediterraneenne pour la Protection des Plantes. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Bull. It turns black in early L2‐stage (Fig. Zeitung für Angewandte Entomologie, 67:261-266, Salama HS, Foda MS, Sharaby A, 1989. Schmutterer, H., 1971. Absent, pest eradicated, confirmed by survey. EPPO list A2. Afifi, F. M. L., El-Whab, H. M. A., 1990., Gacemi, A., Taibi, A., Abed, N. E. H., Bouzina, M. M., Bellague, D., Tarmoul, K., 2019. Key to the identification of the final instar caterpillars eaten in Congo-Brazzaville. The average life cycle will be completed in about 25 days. Techniques for the control of cotton pests in Egypt to reduce the reliance on chemical pesticides. 142 (7), 646-653. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. The Egyptian cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. Egypt, 59:289-294, Navon A, Wysoki M, Keren S, 1983. Biologische Bundesanstalt, Dossenheim, Germany. 214 (10), 182. IPPC, 2013. 1613:5 [+7] pp, EPPO, 1990. on cotton in Egypt. Entomophaga. Cold storage as a quarantine treatment to prevent the introduction of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) Crop Protection, 5(2):100-104, Inserra S, Calabretta C, 1985. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 67(4), 371-389. Adult moth of S. littoralis (museum set specimen). Recent advances in the use of pheromones in developing countries with particular reference to mass-trapping for the control of the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis and mating disruption for the control of pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella. Mating, longevity, fertility and fecundity of the cotton leaf-worm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) S. littoralis females are ready to mate immediately after emergence. Quarantine pests for Europe. The eggs hatch in about 4 days in warm conditions and 12 days in cooler conditions. Potential Economic Impact and Description of Damage: Based on the available geographic records of this moth, it is predicted that 48% of the U.S. will be suitable for survival of this moth. EPPO Global database. (1986). NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Specific quarantine requirements. DOI:10.1007/BF02769814, Sutanto K D, Said El-Salamouny, Muhammad Tufail, Rasool K G, Sukirno Sukirno, Shepard M, Shapiro M, Aldawood A S, 2017. The moths of Borneo: family Noctuidae, trifine subfamilies: Noctuinae, Heliothinae, Hadeninae, Acronictinae, Amphipyrinae, Agaristinae. An EPPO standard provides guidance for the identification of S. littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania (OEPP/EPPO, 2015). The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Paris, France: Masson et Cie Editeurs, 1275-1614, Cayrol RA, 1972. Main Host(s): Extensive host plant range including ornamentals, vegetables, fruits and row crops. Research Bulletin, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, No. Toxicity of avocado leaves (Persea americana) to young larvae of Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. Spodoptera littoralis. Noctuelles trifides de Madagascar, ecologie, biogeographie, morphologie et taxonomie (Lep.). Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Parasitoids (braconids, encyrtids, tachinids and ichneumonids) and predators have been extensively documented. The eggs hatch in four days (depending on temperature) and initial larval feeding causes leaf skeletonization – an early indication of infestation. September 2020 Bulletin of the National Research Centre 44:155- When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Common Names: African Cotton Leafworm, Egyptian Cotton Leafworm, Mediterranean Brocade Schmutterer H, 1971. - … Descriptions and colour illustrations of 1183 species. It can colonize over 80 different plant species including many grasses, and crops such as alfalfa, soybean, sorghum, and corn. 2:vii + 1425 pp. Fourth report. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands: Obeng-Ofori D, Sackey J, 2003. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65(2):221-262, Campion DG, Bettany BW, McGinnigle JB, Taylor LR, 1977. Investigating internal bacteria of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) [R]Life Cycle - In its region of origin (Egypt), some ten generations occur each year; in greenhouses, only 7 are possible, depending on the conditions, which may cause its migration. 25-34. DOI:10.1111/jen.12514, Ahmad T R, 1988. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer, 30(2):164-212, Özkan C, Özmen D, 2001. Cameroon Journal of Biological and Biochemical Sciences. Evaluation of natural additives to enhance the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) under field conditions in Saudi Arabia. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. Collecting and surveying of insect fauna on grapevine in Khuzestan province. Stuttgart, Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 71(4):350-355, Dutton, A., Romeis, J., Bigler, F., 2005. 105 (2), 212-215. Spodoptera frugiperda. Spodoptera littoralis is native to Africa, the Middle East and the Mediterranean countries of Europe. ©Maarten van Merriënboer/PPS, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 61:15-20, Nasr ESA, Nassif FM, 1978. JOURNAL OF CROP PROTECTION, 8(3), 361-371. doi: 10.5923/j.ajmms.20190902.01, Harakly FA, Bishara SI, 1974. If these measures are taken, relatively few applications of conventional insecticides are necessary (Campion and Nesbitt, 1982; Hosny et al., 1983; Campion and Hosny, 1987). Turkish Journal of Biology. Mortality of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at non-freezing temperatures. Field evaluation of non-synthetic insecticides for the management of insect pests of okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench in Ghana. Numerous studies have been carried out on possible biological control of S. littoralis. Life Cycle. In: Balachowsky AS, ed. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. In Africa and the Middle East, field research has documented instances of chemical insecticide resistance, such as to chlorpyrifos in Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research. A nuclear polyhedrosis virus has been evaluated against S. litura (Elnagar and El-Sheikh, 1990; Jones et al., 1994), whereas fungi and microsporidia have also been recorded as pathogens. 4 (Special Issue), 121-128. Scientific Journal of Agriculture, 13(13), 3-10. Othim S T O, Srinivasan R, Kahuthia-Gathu R, Dubois T, Dinssa F F, Ekesi S, Fiaboe K K M, 2018. Scientific Reports. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 114(3), 161-169. doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2005.00239.x, El-Latif, A. O. Like other holometabolous insects, the butterfly's life cycle consists of four parts: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Sneh B, Gross S, 1981. The cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, is a phytophagous pest and current focal species for insect chemical ecology and neuroethology. A proposed new biological standard for bioassay of bacterial insecticides vs. Spodoptera spp. Impact & Damage Physiological Entomology. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1996: Volume 3: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 18-21 November 1996., 1071-1076; 14 ref, Zoebelein G, 1977. Tecnica Agricola, 37(3-4):223-241. The influence of different host plants on the development of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) ), in Egypt (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Most species are diurnal. 1008. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1975.tb02313.x, Roméo H C, Champlain D L, Chantal A D, Stephan E A P, 2015. For more information on morphological discrimination between the adult, pupal and larval stages of the two species, refer to Schmutterer (1969), Cayrol (1972), Mochida (1973) and Brown and Dewhurst (1975). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. DOI:10.4314/jab.v142i1.1, Agbodzavu M K, Lagat Z O, Gikungu M, Rwomushana I, Ekesi S, Fiaboe K K M, 2018.